geol 5 final

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jetski_chic07
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302190
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geol 5 final
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2015-05-18 18:38:59
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geol
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  1. What is the difference between ductile and brittle deformation?
    • ductile: permanently deforming, bending
    • brittle: breaking failure, snap
  2. What factors determine how a rock will respond to stress?
    • temp
    • pressure
    • composition
    • rate of strain
  3. From a bird’s eye view, are older or younger rocks exposed in the core of an anticline? What about a syncline?
    • Anticline - older in middle
    • Syncline - younger in middle
  4. Be able to draw a normal fault, a reverse fault, and a strike-slip fault, label the foot wall and hanging wall (for normal and reverse faults). Show the relative motion along the fault (i.e. hanging wall up or hanging wall down?).
  5. Do normal faults occur under compression or tension? What about reverse faults?  What about strike-slip faults?
    • Normal: tensional
    • Reverse: compressional
    • Strike-Slip: shear
  6. How do basins and domes form?  Where are the oldest rocks in a basin?  In a dome?
    • Basin: bed dips inward, youngest in middle
    • Dome: bed dips outward, oldest in middle
  7. Describe the elastic rebound theory for how earthquakes are generated.
    • Plastic strain builds up along fault
    • Strain exceeds elastic limit
    • Brittle failure
    • Sides snap to new low-strain positions
  8. What is the difference between the measures of earthquake magnitude and intensity
    • Magnitude: measure of energy released in EQ, only 1 mag, Richter scale
    • Intensity: measure of ground shaking in EQ, depends on distance & material, many intensities
  9. What factors affect the intensity of shaking felt?
    • Distance from epicenter
    • Ground material
  10. What is the difference between body waves and surface waves?
    • body: move through earth, faster, P & S waves
    • surface: move across surface, slower, more damage, Love & Rayleigh waves
  11. What is the difference between P-waves and S-waves?
    • P-Wave: primary, high velocity, compressional, back & forth, parallel to direction
    • S-Wave: secondary, slower, transverse, side to side, perp to direction
  12. Describe how you determine where the epicenter of an earthquake is.
    • Triangulate using the distance and times from 3 stations 
    • Where all 3 circles overlap is the epicenter
  13. How much bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake is a magnitude 7?
    • 10^4 times bigger
    • 10,000
  14. The 1985 Mexico earthquake caused severe damage in some parts of Mexico City but not in others, why was this?
    Different geological materials?
  15. Explain how lithosphere and asthenosphere behave differently
    • lithosphere: 100 km thick, rigid/brittle, floats on aesthenosphere
    • Aesthenosphere: plastic/fluid
  16. What is a tectonic plate?
    Section of earth's crust
  17. What are the three types of plate boundary?
    • Divergent
    • Convergent
    • Transform
  18. Give one example of a transform plate boundary.
    San Andreas/California
  19. What are the three types of convergent margins?
    • O-O - older & colder subducts
    • O-C - oceanic subducts below cont
    • C-C - no subduction, large mtn ranges
  20. What is the significance of the trench found at subduction zones?
    • Large EQs
    • Volcanoes
    • Very deep
  21. What geologic hazards are associated with convergent plate margins?
    • Large deep EQs
    • Volcanoes
    • Large mtn ranges
  22. What types of plate boundary exist in Mexico?
    Convergent
  23. Outline three different lines of evidence that was used to support continental drift
    • Fit of continents
    • Matching rocks
    • Alignment of mountain ranges
  24. Know what a hot spot is and an example of one
    • Hot spot: plume of heat rising from mantle
    • Hawaii, Yellowstone
  25. What is an island arc and an example of one?
    • Islands formed by tectonic process, convergent boundaries
    • Japan
  26. Why wasn’t continental drift taken seriously when first proposed in the early 20th century?
    No driving mechanism
  27. What are two characteristics of mountain ranges?
    • size & alignment: long and parallel to other ranges
    • age: taller ranges tend to be younger
  28. What is the relationship between how high a mountain range is and its relative age?
    Taller = younger, not yet eroded
  29. What is a craton?
    • region of continent that has been structurally stable for prolonged period of time
    • thin layer of sed rock
    • same density rocks at mtn range
  30. Be able to explain the term isostacy in terms of a mountain range.
    • balance rock masses within earth
    • heavier rocks sink
    • lighter rocks float
    • isostatic rebound
  31. What is the atmosphere?
    • envelope of gases surrounding the planet
    • 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen
  32. What is the difference between weather and climate?
    • weather: daily, given time and place, temp/precip/wind
    • Climate: comp of weather patterns over long time, regional, seasons, years
  33. What were the findings of the IPCC?
    • Intergov Panel on Climate Change
    • assessment of climate change
    • human impact on climate
    • emission of GHG highest in history
  34. What do we know about temperature changes over the last century?
    Rising
  35. What are the probable consequences of climate change?
    • sea level rise 23 inch by 2100
    • 100M ppl live within 3 feet of sea level
    • glaciers melt
    • strong hurricanes, droughts, heat waves, fires
    • deserts and food shortages
    • mass extinction
    • ocean conveyor belt altered
    • positive feedback effect
  36. When air sinks and heats up which is more likely, evaporation or precipitation?
    precipitation
  37. How much have global climate temperatures increased over the past 100 years?
    • .8 C
    • 1.4 F
  38. What causes waves to form?
    strong winds blowing across the ocean
  39. What is the difference between a summer beach and a winter beach?
    • Summer: gentle waves, wide beach
    • Winter: storm waves, small beach
  40. What is longshore drift and how does it affect the coastline?
    • Sand being transported along the beach
    • Moves sand by striking at angle
    • causes erosion and deposition
  41. What are groins, jetties and breakwaters and how do they disrupt longshore drift?
    • groin: object sticking out from beach, blocks sand from moving, causes dep & erosion
    • jetties: extensions from land to prevent waterways from being blocked by deposition
    • breakwater: object offshore to break waves early
  42. What is wave refraction and how does that relate to coastal straightening?
    • slowing & bending of waves in shallow water
    • one side hits first, starts to bend
    • wraps around headlands to hit on both sides
  43. What man-made measure are used to combat coastal erosion?
    • groins
    • jetties
    • walls
    • breakwaters
  44. Describe two landforms found along an erosional coastline.
    • cliffs
    • arch
    • stack
    • marine terrace - bedrock lifting up
  45. Describe two landforms found along a depositional coastline.
    • barrier island
    • tombolo - sand bar connecting land & island
    • spit
    • lagoon - isolated by barrier island
  46. Know the difference between an emergent coastline and a submergent coastline
    • emergent: drop in sea level relevant to sea level fall or tectonic uplift, marine terrace
    • submergent: rise in sea level relevant to sea level rise or tectonic downthrow, estuaries

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