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Victim wholly absent
- "forgotten party"
- Modern CJS seeks justice on out behalf
- we give up our personal right to venegeance to the state
- CJS ignores the needs of victims
- a place of conflict - traumatic
- effects of cross examination evokes vulnerability and intimidation
- interrogated for their credibility
- secondary victimisation
inside court - acedemic
- Adler - research on the trauma of a trial for victims of sexual abuse
- relive experience in court
- treated with doubt
- also: lack of support, information, participation
- Christie 1986:
- victim as a label has a powerful status
- innocent, sympathetic, weak, harmed by a stranger
- those who do not "fit" label are disadvantaged
- must align to a particular stereotype for sympathy
- victim blaming
- Ipswich Murders 2006 sex workers
Victim Statements critique
- not everyone has the ability to be as emotive/articulate
- difficult/painful experience - relive/very personal
- does it undermine objectivity?
- bias towards the victim
- affects the balance of power between the state and the defendent
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