351c final exam

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351c final exam
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  1. afro american symphony
    • william grant still
    • first work by an african american to be played by a major orcehstra
    • based on poetry by paul dunbar
    • first movemtn
    • -sonata form
    • -jazz jestures like blues licks, muted trumpet, and call and responce between soloists
  2. appalachian spring
    • copland
    • ballet suite
    • last of the great cowboy ballets
    • written for martha grahm -coreographa
    • wide open texture
    • lots of dissonance but you dont hear it
    • alternating blocks of material
    • simple gifts shaker tune
  3. Peter grimes
    • britten
    • masterpiece
    • prologues and 3 acts and connects acts with orghestral interluds
    • very somber and pessamistic
    • modal/ diatonic but it is out there
    • helped revitalise english opera
    • about a fisherman with a boy apprentace who dissapppears and after his second apprentance dissappears he kills himself
  4. quartor pour la fin du temps
    • quartet for the end of time
    • oliver messiaen
    • written in therisienstadt -german prison camp
    • complex rhythm - additive ryhtms and poly rhythm
    • - each instrumnet has its own thing and they interact to create polyrhythm
    • think of it as a series of events
  5. le marteau sans maitre
    • pierre boulez
    • for alto and instruments
    • expressionistic
    • based on poems by rene chlar
    • all about tamber and texture not pitch
    • -huge amounts of shifting tone color
    • 3 poems plus commentary
    • takes a pitch class set and divides it up
    • - it is so highly serialized that it becomes a free for all
  6. kreuzspiel
    • crossplay
    • stockhousen
    • serialized everything
    • percussion creates an ostinato to hold on to
    • notes begin in the extreams of registers
    • -creates patterns of register
    • foreground is audiable (pitch rows)
  7. sonatas and interludes
    • sonata 5 cage
    • still serial
    • binary form
    • prepared pianio
    • isorhythmic
    • not every string is prepared so there is some pitch
  8. music of changes
    • book 1
    • cage
    • tite refers to the i-ching
    • - says you can get answers to life questions by rolling dice
    • cage threw dice to create pitch class set
    • it was compleatly based on the dice and chance
  9. projection 1
    • feldman
    • involves lots of instructions
    • pitch is left up to the performer
    • for solo cello
    • he controls tamber and how you play it
  10. sequenza III
    • berio
    • highy virtuosic pieces written for various instruments
    • starts with instructions and a key
    • lots of it is up to chance
    • written for the voice
    • is about the use and creation of extended vocal techniques
    • poetry is treated as sound not poetry
    • doesnt have a meter
  11. black angels: thirteen images from the dark land
    • George crumb
    • for electric string quartet
    • involves electronic manipulatoion of traditional instruments
    • uses untraditional bowing techniques
    • about going to vietnam and having your spirit annihilated then coming back to american and hoping for redemption
    • 3 movments: departure- absence- return
    • this is atonal not serial
  12. philomel
    • babbit
    • extreamly serial
    • for soprano synthesizer and recorded soprano
    • about a woman who is raped
    • e and echo helps to organize the piece
    • its serial
  13. threnody to the victims of hiroshima
    • pendericki
    • tone poem for string orchsetra
    • standard instruments making new sounds
    • -lots of bowing techniques
    • politically motivated piece
    • graphic notation
    • kinda like textural music - it influences later textural music
  14. barstow
    • partch
    • 8 different hitchhiker inscriptions that were carve or written that he found
    • not in the book
    • has a whole bunch of recordings that have to be played while it is sung or played
  15. tehillijm
    • reich
    • 4 singers and orchestra
    • theme and variations
    • influenced by phase music
    • melodic and rhythmic cannons
    • is a jewish text
    • lots of strange metters
  16. short ride in a fast machine
    • adams
    • one of his last minimalist pieces
    • lots of ontinato
    • static harmony
    • great orcehstration
    • you hear real melodies
    • -sectionalized the piece uising the melody
  17. etude no 9 vertige
    • ligeti
    • piano etude
    • falling waves of sound
    • textural music
  18. symphony no 1
    • zwilich
    • developing variation
    • mahler influence
    • not connsonant but very transparent
    • very repetitive
    • elements of neo romanticism
    • in arch form ABA' (but atonal so not sonata form)
  19. seven magnificant antiphons
    • part
    • tintinnalouli - parts term for bell like choral sounds
    • quite dissonant but very approachiabe
    • spare texture
    • text is a vehical for sound
    • non metrical
  20. rejoice sonata for violin and violoncello
    • gubaidulina
    • dissonant but very excuberant
    • lots of strange figuration
    • extended string techniques
    • kept unified by repitation (almost feels like a rondo)
  21. concerto grosso 1
    • second movment tocatta - sectionalized improvisitory feeling piece
    • schnittke
    • starts a style and wrecks it with something modernist
  22. seven tunes heard in china #1 seasons
    • bright sheng
    • comissioned by pacific symphony and written for yo yo ma
    • for solo cello
  23. william grant stil
    • - importnat milestone - home grown composer with different periods (product of an american school)
    • one of the first american composers who whorks in main stream music
    • studied on oberland then worked with varese
    • decided that his great value was going to be working inside african american idioms
    • - integrates jazz and blues into orcehstral music
    • -used african folk music and music that sounded like it in his msuic
    • -expecially spiratuals
  24. aaron copland
    • went to paris and studied with nadia boulanger
    • -helped with his orchestration, counterpoint, and his refrence point in neoclaaccissm
    • career overview
    • -early works - very harsh
    • - jazz influence - music for the theater happened during the 1920's
    • - modernist - piano variations came from this period
    • - social realism came from within
    • = he decided to go for more simplicity and more accessability and he gravitated towards american subjects and was labeled as populism
    • = sound became much more transparent and undersntandable but it was still dissonant
    • = 3 cowboy ballet's came from this time period
    • - returns to abstract music but everyone liked him better when he was populist
  25. populism
    • simple and transparent music that gravitated towards american subjects, themes and sounds
    • it is still dissonant but you dont know it
    • lots of open 3rds and 5ths
  26. Benjamin Britten
    • nationalistic and neoclassic
    • -experiments too though
    • he is a great orchestral composer
    • generally diatonic with lots of chromaticism
    • lots of transparent counterpoint
    • wrote lots of choral music
    • one of the first openly gay composers
    • if there is one british composer who is expressionistic it is him
  27. oliver messiaen
    • extreamly influencial
    • wrote a book in 1944 techinuqe do mon musica
    • - the techinuqe of my musical language
    • - he talks about musical sounds as seperated into :dynamic, pitch, duration, and tamber
    • =thought you should treat each element of music separately
    • - pitch is always treated in a systematic way
    • -he replaces measure and beat with the idea of a value of time that gets multiplied
    • =creates the idea of metrical music
    • =destroys the idea of meter
    • =he uses hindu rhythmic formulas and is using a non western concept of time
    • - uses lots of chant (was catholic)
    • -incorperates bird songs in his music
    • -creates a rigid sructure of rules
  28. Pierre Boulez
    • wanted to treat all elements in serial practices
    • - assigned numbers to everything to create rows to manipulate
    • - loved schoenburg but didnt think he took it far enough so he liked webern better
    • was a trained mathmetition
    • theought that atonality was where everyone should be
    • highly influenced by messiaen
  29. integral serialism
    serializing everyhting (pitch, rhythm, articulation, and dynamic
  30. karlheinz stockhausen
    • very into the idea of serializing everything - integral serialism
    • very much in the avant garde
    • starts with a single unit then combines it with different layers
    • he attended darmstadt summer course in new music and it made him interested int he avant garde and creates his style
  31. john cage
    • studied with cowell and schoenburg
    • saw music as organized sound
    • used lots of prepared piano
    • very into chance music but his chance was almost always in the compositional process
    • - highly influenced by zen buddhism - idea of free flating radicals in the aether
  32. merce cunningham
    • - was a dancer who danced to cage's music
    • -very important mocern dancer
    • - lots of colaboration between these two
  33. prepared piano
    • piano that has been edited some way to change the sound
    • it turned pinao into a barley pitched percussive instrument
  34. indeterminancy / aleatoric/ chance
    • - application of some element of chance in the production of music
    • - either in the performance or composition of the music
  35. morton feldmann
    wrote projection 1
  36. luciano berio
    • uses lots of quotations
    • is a modernist and experimented with a wide series of techniques
    • he directed a large electraonic music lab (IRCAM) that was run by boulez
    • he was married to cathy berberian who was an amazing mezzo soprano that sang traditional music and had an opera career as well as singing modernist vocal music
  37. Harry partch
    • started very conservatice then destroyed all of it and went through a period of self examination
    • - wrote a book called the genesis of music
    • - talked about his concept of music and his influences from all over the world
    • - developed a 43 note scale to develop pure untempered consonance for which he had to construct new instruments to use
    • lived as a hobo for a while
    • wrote barstow
  38. electronic music
    • -invented in 1906 and had a huge instrument that created artificial sounds
    • magnetic tape revolutionized it
    • starte with musique concete - manipulation of natural sounds
    • 2 big electronic music studios - producing new sounds
    • - west german - rundfunk - cologne
    • - new jersey - rca mark II
  39. Theraman
    electronic instrument invented by lev termen
  40. what were the 4 ways to use electronics in music
    • -creation of new sound
    • -manipulation of naturl sound
    • -distort or magnify live performance
    • -live performance + tape
  41. milton babbit
    • electronic music composer (philomel)
    • used the RCA mark II (synth)
  42. George Crumb
    • all about quotation
    • imports multi cultural influences
    • alters instruments electronically - often uses non western instruments
    • wrote politically motivated works
  43. Krysztof Pounderecki
    • avant garde but does hace audience appeal
    • big piece includes saint luke's passion
    • listening: threnody
  44. Textual music
    • creating music from masses of sound
    • derived from varese and cowell
    • some of whitacre's choral stuff falls in this
  45. gyorgi ligeti
    • textraul music composer
    • combined blobs of sound
    • creates tone clusters with indistinguishable individual components
    • - individual perofmrer falls into the whole sound
  46. Post modernism
    • 60's to 70's
    • still trying to find their sound
    • great divide between composers writing and what the people wanted to hear
    • very little community but lots of competition
    • all about eclecticism in the way of serialism and chance music
  47. Minimalism
    • - type of post modernism
    • influced by cage
    • lots of repetition and ostinato (diatonic harmony and melody but not necessarily tonal)
    • controlled improv is common
    • of has extended lengths inducing a trance like state
    • often a non western influence
  48. la monte young
    • early minimalist
    • almost no melodic idea present
    • isnt consitered the father because he didnt take it to the right place
  49. terry riley
    • father of minimalism
    • he liked the idea of non-function and seeting up perameaters for sound and rhythm then allowing for improv
    • no concept of melody
    • wrote " in c"
    • liked to take a simple idea and small chunks of melody to create longer compositions
  50. steve reich
    • pure minimalism
    • tends to use musique concert
    • crossover to popular music
    • into phase music
    • wrote music for 18 musiciand and tehillim
  51. Philip glass
    • known for his theater pieces
    • very into multi media
    • known for his opera einstein on the beach
    • monolithic minimalism
    • collaborated wuth robert wilson (avant garde director)
  52. john adams
    • started as minimalist and absorbed neo romantic ideas
    • first well known minamilistic piece ( phrygian gates)
    • when he moved to vocal and theater music he beacame more neo romantic
    • landmark opera is called nixon in china which was the beginning of his colaboration with peter sellars
  53. arvo part
    • from estonia and now lives in berlin
    • he is a spiritual minimalist
    • -lots of static harmonies
    • -tends to make a lot out of small amounts of musical information (eric whitacre holds the same ideal)
    • highly influenced by the russian orthodox church
    • often has a very spare texture with lots of single voices and silence
  54. the new accessibility
    • working in tonal music despite "modernism"
    • included many composers including barber, corigliano, laurdetson, zwilich, gubaidulina, schnittke and sheng
  55. sofia bugaidulina
    • from moscow and got in trouble with the soviet regime
    • gentle modernist
    • wrote alot for violinist gidon kremer
  56. alford schnittke
    • jewish, russian and german, lived in russa and germany
    • has been in poor helth all of his life
    • takes a bit of all major trends into one piece
    • -called polystylism
    • "the goal of my life is to unify serious music and light music
  57. bright sheng
    • composer
    • draws upon his asian and western music when he composes
  58. third stream
    synthesis between jazz and classical music
  59. musique concrete
    the electronicic manipulation of natural sound to make music
  60. how have composers created new sounds and tambers?
    • +Second viennese school - serialism 
    • Schoenburg - uses atonality    
    • - creates serialism which creates a new way of organizing music that changed the sound of music away from I - V - I and into an organizational idea that is all about process

    webern took this idea a step further creating a highly pointallistic version of atonality

    Berg took schoenburg's ideas and uses loose serialism to create a more melodic atonality that remains organized







    +transitional ideas - classic ideas + polytonality

    • stravanski- uses primitivism to create new sound by using rhythmic patterns including highly syncopated ostinato and different polytonaltonalitys to create new chords and break up meter by use of additive rhythm 
    • - this allows the tone color and instrumentation to become the organizing force in his music rather than melodic ideas


    ives -he uses bi and poly tonality constantly as well as layering (often layering quotations) to create highly dissonant music that creates a kind of musical collage

    bartok, les six, the new objectivity, prokofiev, and shostakovich- used classical procedures with romantic and modern harmony but did not create new tone color or timbre 








    +changes in sound - new sounds based on old ones

    • edgard varese- experimented with sound and unusual combinations of instruments 
    • -created the idea of sound masses - combinations of instruments combining to make new sounds

    Cowell- very big on tone clusters= one instrument with lots of notes that creates new sounds (does this in banshee)









    +popular music influences - easy to understand and accessible 

    William grand stil-incorperates jazz harmonies into traditional classical orcehstral music 

    aaron copland- creates populism as his sound becomes more transparent, and understandable despite being quite dissonant - becasme very focused on subject themes and sounds










    + serialism of ideas - everything serialized + layering ideas

    • messiaen- talks about musical sound as seperate parts
    • - dynamic, pitch, duration, tamber
    • - thought that you should treat each element seperatly
    • = he basically destroys meter, and treats pitch in a systematic way
    • highly influencial

    • boulez- you treat everything in serial practices and assigned numbers to everything to manipulate via tone row
    • -he was highly atonal and creates pieces based on shifting tone color (le marteau sans maitre) 

    • stockhausen
    • also serialzed everything-starts with a single unit then combines it with different layering techniques to create a full fleged piece











    +new color - creation of sounds and new instruments

    • john cage saw music as the organization of sound created new colors with prepared piano !!!
    • and also used indeterminacy to create new sounds and colors that nobody could predict (music of changes)

    • morton feldmann
    • projection 1 he only controls tamber and how it is played and leaves pitch to the performer

    • berio
    • experimented with electronic music and constantly experimented with new sounds
    • wrote sequenza III which uses lots of extended vocal technique

    • harry partch
    • developed a new 43 note scale to work with pure untempered consonance
    • constructed new instruments with new sounds to play these scales









    +electronic music - manipulation of sounds electronity

    inventers such as termen, mattenot, and hammond created new electronic elements and the invention of magenetic tape allowed for the electronic manipulation of sound

    • 4 ways of using electronics in msuic
    • -creating new sounds
    • -manipulation of natural sound
    • - magnify or distory live perrformance
    • - live performance + tape

    milton babbit experimented with synthesized sounds including the RCA mark II also uses electronic tape to augment sound


    george crumb all about quotations and multi cultural influences and alters instruments electronically to create new sounds

    Pounderecki uses strange instrumental techniques to make new sounds such as bowing techniques






    • textural music creates music from masses of sound 
    • ligeti does this a lot







    minimalism as influenced by cage and young and created by riley uses simple ideas to create a large piecethis was done by reich, glass, adams, and partcreates pieces that are very long but based on small repeating patterns

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