Policing and Discrimination
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UK Context - long history of policing
- 1980s - "sus laws" E+W
- stop and search laws that permitted police to arrest people who were loitering
"sus laws" led to
- Scarman Inquiry 1981
- disproportionate and indiscriminate use of 'stop and search' powers by the police against black people
- local community mistrusted the police and their methods of policing
- recommended changes in training
recruitment of more ethnic minorities into the police force
- inquiry 1999
- inability to deal with problems of racial inquiries
- concluded Metro police institutionally racist
- 70 recommendations
stop and search statistics
- Blacks 7x more likely to be stopped
- Asians 2x more likely
- 2012 - EHRC Blacks 28x more likely to be stopped in some areas
- 2012 - 3% stop and searches lead to arrests
BUT stop and search
- Available street populations
- different ethnic group differently available
- unequal prop on streets
- OR is practise flawed?
- pressure for results
- emergence of new tactics "intelligence led policing"
- eg street robbery YBM
Do EM commit more crime?
- links between poverty and crime
- Black pop disproptionally experience poverty, educational underachievement
- BUT unlikely to be irrelevent
- connection is not as straightforward
- interplay of adverse social conditions and reactions of CJS
BME over-represented at ALL stages of CJS
- lead to high levels of mistrust
- expectations of discrimination
expectations of discrimination - Interaction: becoming an "asshole"
- Waddington 1999 "trial by respect of cop"
- giving police reasonable suspicion to search a person due to hostile/suspicious interaction
- relevant to BME - expect discrimination
- negative cycle of interaction
Individual Officers - examining attitudes of staff
- significant changes
- little overt racism
- BUT overt sexism and homophobia
- due to overt racism declining in broader society
- police progressive institution under scrutiny
- YET perception of racism still exists
Police Organisation - Institutional racism def
"collective failure of an organisation to provide appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, ethnicity"
- stereotyping - police map and world social world
- lead to discriminatory policing
- BUT reflects power structures of societies being policed
- dervies from broader social racism
- we put BME in low status categories
- BUT policing reinforces these power relations
- wider social transformation needed
What would you like to do?
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