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- 1-heredity: caused by atopy , present as atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma and food allergy
- 2-antigen exposure: caused by oral tlerance failure from environmental factors like stress, smoke, tobacco, amount of antigen and seasonal changes
- 3-maternal diet and early infant feeding: by skin contact, inhalation, ingestion, and breast milk
- 4-gastrointestinal microbiota: leaky gut and dysbiosis influence immune function in the GALT gut associated lymphoid tissue thus allowing sensitization.
adverse reaction to food (ARF)
encompasses both allergies and intolerances
immune mediated reaction to food, usually hapten when attached to a large protein carrier that presents different symptoms like abdominal pain, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis...
adverse reaction to food that does not involve the immune system.
refers to ARF used when it is not clear if the symptoms are caused bu allergy or intolerance
a hypothesis that states an individual exposed to toxicant may become sensitive to food
what influences the response of body to food?
- 3-environmental factors
- 4-psychological factors
- 5-physiological influences
- 5-intestinal barrier integrity
- 6-resident intestinal microflora
- cancer cells
substances that are safe but the body falsely responds to as foreign
oral mucosal tolerance
the ability to perceive foreign animal and plant substances as foreign but safe
pathophysiology : first exposure
- at first exposure:
- 1-the monocytes and macrophages engulf the foreign material
- 2-break it apart and presents apitope3-T cells recognize the antigen-presenting cell
- 4-cytokines are released to induce T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2
- 5-Th1 regulates antibody production and destruction of the antigen
- 5-Th2 mediates the production of allergen-specific IgE from B cells
pathophysiology: second exposure
- at second exposure
- 1-allergen-specific antibody IgE that are attached to mast cells and circulating basophiles form antibody-antigen complex
- 2-this activates granulocytes which degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like:
- 3-symptoms occur like: abdominal pain, nausea, hives, angioedema, rhinitis, hypotension, and chronic-fatigue syndrome