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-what to write down for note-taking
- essence of meaning, not words
- - only what is necessary, not the obvious-
- --names, dates and numbers
- transition words
- -VERB TENSE/MOODS
- -slash for genetive
- -male/female/singular/plural - meaning critical
when start taking notes?
as soon as speech begins
why use verticality?
- they make it possible to
- -organize ideas logically
- -give correct weight to each part
- -quickly thoroughly get across speakers argument
- -noting a gap
what use is a MARGIN?
- -varying distance indicates main and subordinate elementd
- -so can establish visible HIERARCHIES
- - so SKELETON of SPEECHES STRUCTURE
use of HORIZONTAL LINE
- -divide parts of the message, prevents unintentional merging
- -possible to jump to other parts if asked to summarize speech
OMISSION in note-taking - using reference arrow
- -leaving a gap and reference line to something already used
- -saves energy
- -streamlines notes without compromising accuracy
what language to take notes in???
- -non-specific symbols
- -no one answer
- -possibly in or into native tongue
if you are going to write words, what is essential
abbreviation: beginning and end
what type of hierarchy is essential for note-taking?
subject + predicate + object
where should TRANSITION elements be noted?
on LEFT to stand out
should PREPOSITIONS be noted?
only when essential
should COMPARITIVES and SUPERLATIVES be noted
- when not obvious from context
- as meaning critical
if you miss part of the message, what should you do?
- -if the advantage of asking ? outweighs disadvantages, ask the speaker
- -put ? politely to speaker in speakers own language, and thank them
- -ask clear, precise ?n
important points for RE-EXPRESSION of message
- - not look at notes all the time
- -speak efficiently (2/3 to 3/4 original)
- -make eye contact most of the time
- -speak understandably at good pace, using intonation and pauses
why shouldn't a literal-word-for-word interpretation be given?
- -impossible due to grammar and lexis of different language
- -different terms of cultural reference
what are the essential parts of the interpreters work?
note-taking can HELP but not necessary
RISKS of investing too much in notes?
- -too close to original speech, difficult to reformulate
- -no attention for analysis and understanding of speech
use of notes?
- -assist memory, especially numbers, names, lists etc, free attention for analysis
- -assist in reproduction of STRUCTURE of the speech (assists analysis)
what to note
- skeleton outline of speech
- -links and seperations
- -tenses, conditional, modal verbs
- -numbers, dates, proper names (write PHONETICALLY
what to do if you miss something
leave space to indicate so a ?n can be asked of speaker later
SUGGESTION LARGE CROSS RIGHT HAND, so can flip back easily
what are the 8 broad areas of errors according to PATRIE
- 1 - literal translations
- 2-inadequate language proficiency (most frequent source of error - leads to literal translations)
- 3-errors in register conservation
- 6-added information
- 7-protocol, procedure and ethics
- 8-nonconservation of paralinguistic elements
what are the advantages of studying errors that occur during interpreting?
inferences can be made about what part of the interpretation process is weak or missing.
seems negative but v. effective
some consequences of inadequate language proficiency?
- -lack of ability to predict language patterns
- -weakness in memory, comprehension, multitasking etc
- -inadequate attention span in weaker language
- -interference between languages: grammar and vocab. errors
three possible reasons for DISTORTION
and cases where most likely to occue
- 1- deficient language skills
- 2-memory skills
- 3-interpreting skills
occurs SHORT utterences, technical language, hedges, false starts, unfinished sentences
When is OMISSION most likely to occur
due to fatigue fr experienced interpreters
problems with ADDITIONS and a more appropriate approach
- removes power from speech,
- symptomatic memory failure:
- more appropriate:
- keep silent - ask for clarification
problem with errors of protocol, procedure and ethics
- -not faithful to message
- -should include profanities
- -necessary to CORRECT ERRORS
can ruin legal process, for ex. talking to witness when should not
what is the most serious error in the three phase interpretation process
1st phase most serious
nativos de America
hot and spicy food
comida picante y condimentada
wonderful hot flavor
delicioso sabor picante