Head and Neck RCA 1

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Author:
vickrum
ID:
302361
Filename:
Head and Neck RCA 1
Updated:
2015-10-01 04:51:30
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MICN301
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RCA
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  1. Name the muscle, origin, insertion and action
    • Orbicularis oculi
    • Attachments:
    • - origin; medial palpebral ligament & medial orbital margin,
    • - insertion; lateral palpebral raphe, skin around the margin of orbit
    • Action: closes eyelids
  2. Name the muscle, origin, insertion and action
    • Orbicularis oris
    • Origin: Fibres arise from midline of maxilla, mandible and deep surface of skin
    • Insertion: mucous membrane of lips
    • Action: compresses and protrudes lips
    • #
    • Buccinator; Muscle of the cheek
    • Origin: posteriorly from pterygomandibular raphe
    • - Superiorly & inferiorly from alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible
    • Insertion: angle of mouth
    • Action: presses cheek against molar teeth - aiding chewing,
    • - compresses distended cheeks - air expulsion from oral cavity
  3. Name the muscle, origin, insertion and action
    • Frontalis : muscle of scalp
    • Arise from epicranial aponeurosis
    • Insertion - skin of forehead
    • Action: elevates eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
    • #
    • Orbicularis Oculi
  4. Name the muscle, origin, insertion and action
    • Platysma: Superficial muscle of neck
    • Arise - superficial fascia of deltoid and pectoral regions
    • Insertion - mandible, orbicularis oris
    • Action: depresses mandible, tenses the skin
  5. Describe the path of the facial nerve, and give the branches;
    • Emerges from stylomastoid foramen and enters parotid gland
    • Runs superficially within gland and gives rise to five terminal branches;
    • - Temporal
    • - zygomatic
    • - maxillary → buccal
    • - mandibular
    • - cervical
    • These emerge from the 3 margins of the gland; superior, anterior and inferior
    • Function: Supply muscles of facial expression
  6. Generally, describe the vasculature supply and drainage of the face
    Identify the Orange, purple and yellow vessels
    • Most arteries of the face are branches of external carotid artery
    • Venous return is to internal jugular vein.
    • #
    • External jugular vein
  7. Name the CYAN vessel, its tributaries, and its path
    • Facial Artery
    • Arises from external carotid artery
    • Ascends deep to submandibular gland
    • Winds around inferior border of mandible just anterior to masseter muscle
    • Tortuous (i.e. windy and indirect) course upwards and medially over the face
    • - To medial angle (canthus = where eyelids meet) of the eye
    • Sends branches to upper and lower lips and side of the nose
  8. Name the RED vessels, its tributaries, and its path
    • Superficial temporal artery (and vein)
    • Smaller of the two terminal branches of external carotid artery
    • Emerges on the face anterior to the ear
    • Ascends and supplies the temporal region (think temporal lobe)
  9. Name this vessels, its tributaries, and its path
    • Ophthalmic artery
    • Arises from the internal carotid artery
    • Passes through the optic foramen together with the optic nerve
    • Gives off branches to the structures in the orbit; i.e. area around eye and socket
  10. Name the GREEN vessels, its tributaries, and its path
    • Supraorbital artery (and vein)
    • Terminal branch of ophthalmic artery
    • Passes superiorly from supraorbital foramen
    • Distributes to the muscles and skin on the forehead and scalp
  11. Name the BLUE vessels, its tributaries, and its path
    • Facial vein
    • Major vein draining the face
    • Begins at the medial canthus of the eye, and runs posterior to the artery
    • At inferior margin of mandible drains into internal jugular vein (along with the retromandibular vein)
  12. Name the CYAN vein, its tributaries, and its path
    • Superior ophthalmic vein (+ inferior ophthalmic):
    • Both branches of ophthalmic veins pass through the superior orbital fissure and
    • - enter the Cavernous sinus
  13. Name the NON-CYAN veins, its tributaries, and its path
    • Pterygoid plexus of veins
    • Network of small veins around lateral pterygoid muscle
    • Communicates with Cavernous sinus by emissary veins passing through foramen ovale
    • #
    • Deep facial vein
    • Facial vein
  14. Describe how all the veins in the face communicate
    • Facial vein communicates with;
    • - the superior ophthalmic vein at the medial cathus
    • - the pterygoid plexus via the deep facial vein (which drains into the facial vein)
  15. Which nerve is responsible for the sensory supply of the face?
    • Largely through the three branches of trigeminal nerve;
    • - Ophthalmic (V1)
    • - Maxillary (V2)
    • - Mandibular (V3)
    • * But some skin over the angle of mandible and year is supplied by great auricular nerve from the cervical plexus
  16. Describe the Ophthalmic division, including its path, branches and functions
    • Ophthalmic division (V1): Wholly sensory, divides into three branches, which all enter through superior orbital fissure;
    • Frontal: Gives rise to supraorbital nerve
    • - Supply upper eyelid, forehead & scalp
    • Lacrimal: Passes laterally (lacrimal gland)
    • - Supplies lateral skin & conjunctiva of upper eyelid
    • Nasociliary: Sensory nerve to the eye
    • - Also gives rise to the external nasal nerve which supplies skin of dorsum of the nose
  17. Describe the Maxillary division (V2), including its path, branches and functions
    • Purely sensory
    • Maxillary Nerve leaves middle cranial fossa through foramen rotundum, and enters pterygopalatine fossa
    • Gives off number of branches including the infraorbital nerve and the zygomatic nerve
    • Infraorbital nerve: the main nerve which enters the orbit through inferior orbital fissure *unsure if labelled properly*
    • - Runs on the floor of the orbit, and emerges onto the face through infraorbital foramen
    • - Function: Gives nervous supply to lower eyelid, cheek & upper lip
    • #
    • Zygomatic nerve
    • - Also enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure
    • - Runs on the lateral wall of orbit, where it divides into two branches (i.e. the zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial)
    • - They emerge onto face through foramina in zygomatic bone.
    • - Function: Supply skin over the zygomatic bone
  18. Describe the Mandibular division (V3), including its path, branches and functions
    • The mandibular nerve is a mixed nerve (sensory & motor), and descends through the foramen ovale
    • Mental nerve: Terminal branch of inferior alveolar nerve. Emerges from mental foramen
    • - Function: Supply skin of the chin and lower lip
    • Buccal nerve: Runs anteriorly to supply the cheek
    • Auriculotemporal nerve: Runs superiorly together with superficial temporal vessels
    • - Sensory supply to skin in temporal region
  19. What is the role of the cervical plexus in the innervation of facial sensation?
    • Cervical Plexus: *Found in the posterior triangle and formed by union of first four cervical spinal nerves
    • - formed by the anterior rami of C2-4
    • - 2 nerve groups; deep for muscles and superficial for the skin of the anterior and lateral neck, plus lateral aspect of the head
    • Cutaneous branches from the plexus emerge around the middle of the posterior border of sternomastoid muscle
    • #
    • Great auricular nerve (C2 &C3): *One of the four* cutaneous branches of cervical plexus. It ascends across sternomastoid muscle
    • - Function: Supplies skin over the auricle and angle of the mandible.
  20. Why do facial lacerations tend to gape?
    • Because the face has no distinct deep fascia and the superficial fascia between the cutaneous attachments of the facial muscles is loose, facial lacerations tend to gape.
    • Consequently, the skin has to be sutured with great care to prevent scarring.

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