A Chinese massage technique that uses rubbing and pressing movements.
When did Amma enter in Japan?
Around 500 AD
What evolved from Amma, in Japan?
How is Tsubo different from Amma?
Tsubo have points on the body that are pressed to increase circulation of fluid and Ki (energy).
Tsubo is also know as what?
How long has massage been practiced in India?
Since 1000 BC
In India, what is the term for "Art of life"?
When was the Ayurveda written what was in it as far as massage goes ?
Around 1800 BC, had detailed massage treatments as part of personal hygiene.
How early did Greece start practicing madsage?
When did massage become popular in the US?
What is the Swedish Movement Cure?
It's what made massage popular in the US in 1850. Swedish Movement Cure was developed by the Taylor Brothers.
Who is Aesculapius?
Greek priest physician who combined exercise and massage which is known as gymnastics and founded the first gymnasium.
What did gymnastics originate from?
The combination of exercise and massage.
Who is Celsus?
Roman physician who wrote De Medicina, which detailed the use of massage, bathing, and exercise as prevention of disease.
What is De Medicina?
Book written by Celsus explaining massage, bathing, and exercise as a prevention of disease. Medicina also means medicine.
Who is Per Henrik Ling?
Swedish physiologist who developed a system of active and passive movements to improve physical conditions, known as medical gymnastics.
What two systems evolved out of Medical Gymnastics?
Physical therapy and massage therapy
Who is Charles Taylor?
One of the Taylor bothers, who introduced Medical Gymnastics to the US. Where it became known as the Swedish Movement Cure.
When Medical Gymnastics was introduced to the US, what did it become know as?
The Swedish Movement Cure
Who is Johann Mezger?
Established the modern terms used today for massage strokes, based in french.
Who is Douglas Graham?
Helped to popularize the term "massage" in US
Who is Emil Vodder?
Developed lymphatic drainage
How many main massage strokes are there in Western massage therapy?
What are these six main massage strokes in the west?
Effleurage, Petrissage, Friction, Tapotement, Vibration, and Nerve Stroke.
What is Effeurage?
Long, gliding strokes directed towards the heart. Used to increase circulation, apply massage lub, and transition between strokes. Primarily used at the beginning of a massage.
What is Petrissage?
Kneeding strokes used to increase circulation, loosen adhesions and release metabolic waste from tissues.
What is Friction?
Strokes that move across tissue. Used to increase circulation, break up scar tissue and adhesions, and stretch muscle.
What are some examples of friction strokes?
Circular friction, cross-fiber friction, and compression.
What is Tapotement?
Percussion store used to increase muscle spindle activity, which stimulates the body, and loosen phlegm from the respiratory tract.
What are some examples of Tapotement?
Hacking, cupping, and tapping.
What is Vibration?
Trembling or shaking movements.
What is fast vibration used for?
To stimulate an area.
What is slow vibration used for?
To sedate an area
What is Nerve Stroke?
Extremely light for of effleurage, used at the end of a massage to separate the therapist from the client
What is an active joint movement?
The client performs an action without assistance from the massage therapist.
What is active assistive joint movement?
The client performs an action with assistance from the massage therapist.
What is passive joint movement?
The massage therapist performs a joint mobilization with the client completely relaxed.
What is resistive joint movement?
The client resists a movement being performed by the massage therapist.
What is an Assessment?
A preliminary evaluation of the client before, during, and after the massage treatment. Used to determine contraindications, tailor massage treatments, and refer clients to other health care professionals.
Client stretching into resistance without assistance from the massage therapist.
What is assisted stretching?
Client stretching into resistance with help from a massage therapist.
What is Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation?
Unassisted stretch in which the muscle is stretched into resistance, followed by an isometric contraction of the muscle by the client. The client relaxes the contraction which allows the stretch to move further.
What is Reciprocal Inhibition?
Used to forcibly relax a muscle by contracting the antagonist muscle, especially useful in treating acute muscle cramps.
What is the End Feel?
Stoppage of a range of motion
What is Soft End Feel?
Stoppage of range of motion due to tight soft tissue pulling the joint in the opposite way, has a springy end of motion.
What is Hard End Feel?
Stoppage of range of motion due to hard tissue preventing ant further motion, has an abrupt end of motion.
What is Empty End Feel?
Stoppage of range of motion due to trauma to an affected muscle or joint, limiting motion to prevent further injury.
What is draping?
Using linens to cover a client during a massage session.
What is Top Cover Draping?
The linen is placed atop, used to keep the client covered during a massage session.
What is Full Sheet draping?
Using the entire sheet to enclose a client in a cocoon-like, primarily used in body wrap treatments
What are bolsters used for?
To place a client into a comfortable position while receiving a massage.
How would you bolster someone in supine position?
Under the knees and under the neck.
How would you bolster someone in prone position?
Under the ankles
How would you bolster someone in side-lying position?
Under the head and between the legs and arms.
How would you bolster someone in Semi-reclined position?
Under the keens and under the head.
Why would you bolster a pregnant woman in Semi-reclinded position?
To reduce pressure on the abdominal aorta.
Why do we use body mechanics?
To prevent injury to the massage therapist, provide better massage for the client, and to increase the length of the massage therapist's career.
What are the proper body mechanics?
The back should be straight, the knees should be slightly bent, joints should be stacked, and the massage table should be kept at the proper height.
What is the Archer/Bow Stance?
Feet are placed parallel to the massage table, and allows the massage therapist to perform long gliding strokes like those found in effleurage.
To accomplish a long gliding stroke, what stance should you take?
What is the Horse/Warrior Stance?
Feet are placed perpendicular to the massage table, and allow short powerful strokes to be performed, such as petrissage, friction, compression, and tapotement.
If you were to perform petrissage or tapotement, what stance would you use?
What are some examples of precautions in massage therapy?
Endangered sites, local contraindications, and absolute contraindications.
What is an endangered site?
An area of the body the massage therapist should take precaution on or near while performing a massage.
What is a local contraindication?
An area of the body the must be avoided while performing a massage
What is a absolute contraindication?
A condition that prohibits the use of massage treatment.
What is massage modality?
A particular study and use of massage therapy.
What is Aromatherapy?
Uses essential oils during a massage session for healing. Essential oils may have specific effects on the body, ranging from physical to emotional, depending on the type of essential oil used.
What is Craniosacral Therapy?
Very light massage technique that releases blockage in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranium to the sacrum by working on the axial skeleton.
Who was the developer of Craniosacral Therapy?
What is Deep Tissue?
Deep pressure massage focused on treating deeper muscular and fascial tissue.
What is Feldenkarais?
Massage technique designed to re-educate the body movements, allowing the body to move more fluidly and efficiently, which reduces pain.
Who developed Feldenkrais?
Russian physician Moshe Feldenkrais
What is Hot Stone?
Treatment utilizing heated stones, which may be placed or rubbed on the body. Used to increase circulation thought out the body and relax muscles.
What is Hydrotherapy and the 3 types?
Treatments utilizing water in any form. The 3 types are Turkish Bath, Swiss Shower, and Vichy Shower.
What is a Turkish Bath?
A sauna inside a large stone building.
What is a Swiss Shower?
A standing shower with 16 shower heads.
What is a Vichy Shower?
A shower utilizing 7 shower heads with a client placed on a waterproof table.
What is Lomi Lomi?
A Hawaiian massage, similar to swedish, using rhythmic strokes performed on the entire body with minimal draping.
What is Lymphatic Drainage?
Light massage strokes moving in the direction of the heart, used to increase lymph circulation and reduce swelling.
What is Myofascial Release?
Massage aimed at releasing restrictions in muscles and fascia utilizing light strokes moving in the direction of the restriction.
What is Polarity Therapy?
Massage theory which states every cell has a positive and negative pole, utilizes light strokes to balance the body.
What is Reflexology?
Treating reflex points on the hands, feet, and ears, which may affect corresponding organs throughout the body.
What is Reiki?
Manipulation of energy into and throughout the client, performed without touching the client.
What is Rolfing?
Structural realignment massage technique,which helps the client's body regain vertical alignment. Takes places over ten sessions, with a focus on a different part of the body in each session.
Who developed Rolfing?
About how many sessions does it take to get a full body massage in Rolfing technique?
What is Sports massage?
Massage for athletes, performed before, during, and after athletic events. May be either fast paced or slow and methodical, depending on the work that needs to be done.
What is Swedish massage?
Most common for of massage in the West, focuses primarily on relaxation.
What is Strain-Counter Strain?
Moving the body into a painful position and allowing the body to relax into a non-painful position, helping to release restrictions.
What is another name for Strain-Counter Strain?
What is Thai?
Clothed massage performed on the floor, primarily utilizing stretching techniques.
What is the Trager Method?
Utilizing exercises called Mentastics, performed with movement, gental massage strokes, and rocking to produce positive sensory reception in the CNS.
Who developed the Trager Method?
What is the Certification?
Credential obtained by completing a certification course,usually in a school setting, and may involve passing of a certification exam.
What is the License?
Jurisdictional requirements to regulate the practice of massage therapy, allows massage therapist to perform massage for monetary compensation.
What is the Reciprocity?
Massage license in one jurisdiction being recognized as valid in another jurisdiction.
What is Liability insurance?
Obtained though massage insurance providers, protects the massage therapist in cases such as accidents and malpractice.
T/F. As a massage therapist in texas, you must have liability insurance.
How long should you retain you clients files per IRS and per state of TX?
Six years for IRS, two years for state of TX
What are SOAP notes?
Used to document everything regarding a previous massage treatment.
What does the S stand for in SOAP?
Subjective, anything the client details about themselves
What does the O stand for in SOAP?
Objective or Observation, type of massage or techniques being performed, and any measurable data the massage therapist can physically see.
What does the A stand for in SOAP?
Assessment, any changes in the client resulting from the treatment.
What does the P stand for in SOAP?
Plan, any recommendations for future treatment or exercises suggested to the client between sessions.
What does Confidentiality mean?
Keeping clients information private and protected in all ways.
What is an open-ended question and when is it appropriate to use them?
Used when asking for detailed feedback from the client. Best used while client is on the table. Not before or after the massage.
What is a close-ended question and when is the proper time to use them?
Used when asking for a yes or no response only. Best used before and after massage. Not during.
What does it mean to have a Transference relationship?
A client viewing massage therapist similarly to a person in their early life, which is unethical.
What does it mean to have a Counter-Transference relationship?
A massage therapist bringing their unresolved issues into the therapeutic relationship, which is unethical.
What are Ethics?
Guiding moral principles used to direct a massage therapist to proper course of action in ethical dilemmas.
What does Scope of Practice mean?
Performing treatments and techniques only qualified to perform.
What is a Mission Statement?
A short statement detailing the general purpose of the business.
What are Boundaries?
Setting personal and professional limitations by the client or therapist.
What is HIPAA?
Health Insurance Accountability Act of 1996. Enacted August 21st, 1996. Created by the Health and Human Services. (Look at print out)
What is the Privacy Rule?
Protects all individually identifiable health information. Assures health information of individuals is protected while allowing health information to be transfered between Healthcare providers to provide high-quality health care.
What are the 3 types of employment?
Independent contractor, sole proprietor, and partnership.
What is an Independent contractor?
A massage therapist who contracts to work for a person or company and receives no benefits.
What is a Sole Proprietor?
A business that has only one owner.
What is a Partnership?
A business that has two or more owners.
Who files a 1099 tax form?
The independent contractor
How much does an independent contractor have to make to be required to file a 1099?
$600 or more in a year.
Who files a Schedule C tax form?
The Sole Proprietor.
What is the Schedule C?
It details the profit and loss for the year.
Who files a Schedule K-1 tax form?
What is the Schedule K-1?
Details income and taxes for each partnership member for the pervious year.
What is the 1040 tax form?
Tax forms detailing deductions and dependants.
What is the W2 tax form?
Only filed by employees, details income and taxes from the previous year.