Anatomy and physiology MEBLEx book pratice 2015.txt

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    • description "Flashcards for the anatomy and physiology section of the massage prep book MBLEX 2015"
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    • What is Anatomy?
    • The study of the structure of the human body.
  1. What is Systemic Anatomy?
    The study of the body's organs systems.
  2. What is Regional Anatomy?
    the study of the different regions of the body.
  3. What is Physiology?
    The study of the function of the body.
  4. What are cells?
    Cells are the functional units of all tissues, and they perform all and central life functions.
  5. What is the definition for Cellular Mitosis?
    A cell dividing from one mother cell into two daughter cells in order to replace cell loss.
  6. What are Organelles?
    Organelles are found inside cells to make the cells function.
  7. What contains the DNA and controls activity inside cells?
    The Necleus
  8. What forms ribosomes and synthesizes RNA and ribosomes?
    The Nucleolus
  9. What part of the cell produces ATP?
    The mitochondria
  10. What part of the cell allows transportation of protein in cells?
    The Golgi apparatus
  11. What synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids in the cells?
    The smooth endoplasmic recticulum
  12. What do the lysosomes do?
    Break down protein inside cells.
  13. What are ribosomes?
    They contain RNA and protein, and assemble cell proteins.
  14. What is the gel like substance inside the cell?
    the cytoplasm
  15. What is homeostasis?
    Homeostasis is the existence and maintenance of a constant internal environment. Several factors contribute to the homeostatic process, including hormones, nerve impulses, and sweating. The word homeostasis means home standing still.
  16. What are the homeostatic mechanisms?
    Homeostatic mechanisms are physical things that happen in the body that alter the internal environment in response to a specific change.
  17. What reduces body temperature?
  18. What increases body temperature?
  19. What are the three main regions of the regional anatomy of the body?
    Central, upper limb, and lower limb.
  20. What does a central body region contain?
    The head, neck, and trunk.
  21. The trunk can be further divided into three other regions. What are they?
    The thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
  22. What does the thorax contain?
    It contains the heart and lungs. also it contains the connective tissue that surrounds organs inside the chest except for the lungs, protecting them from too much Jostling, called the Mediastinum.
  23. What does the abdomen region contain?
    The abdomen contains the majority of our digestive organs, including the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestines, large intestines, kidneys, and spleen.
  24. What does the pelvis region contain?
    Our internal reproductive organs, the descending and sigmoid colon, and the urinary bladder.
  25. What are body cavities?
    Body cavities hold things inside them.
  26. There are two main body cavities. What are they?
    Dorsal body cavity and ventral body cavity.
  27. What is the dorsal body cavity made up of?
    The skull, vertebral column, which contains the brain and spinal cord.
  28. What does the ventral body cavity consist of?
    Made by the three trunk cavities. the thorax, adomen, and pelvis.
  29. What is the definition for directional terms?
    Used to describe structures in the Bonnie in relationship to other structures or body parts.
  30. What does superior mean?
  31. What does inferior mean?
  32. What does anterior mean?
  33. What does posterior mean?
  34. What does proximal mean?
    Closer to the midline
  35. What does distal mean?
    Further from the midline
  36. What does medial mean?
  37. What does lateral mean?
    Side or outside
  38. What does deep mean ?
    More internal
  39. What does superficial mean?
    More towards the surface
  40. How many body planes are used to divide the body?
  41. How does the sagittal plane split the body?
    It splits the body into left and right. It is not equal.
  42. how does midsagittal plane split the body?
    Splits the body into equal left and right sides, runs down the midline of the body.
  43. How does the transverse playing split the body and what is another name for?
    Another name for it is horizontal plane, it splits the body into superior and inferior.
  44. How does the frontal plane with the body and what is a nother name for it?
    Another name for is coronal plane and it puts the body into anterior and posterior.
  45. How many types of tissue are in the human body?
  46. What are the four types of tissue in the human body?
    Epithelial , nervous, muscular, and connective.
  47. Explain what epithelial tissue is.
    Forms most glands, the digestive tract, and the epidermis. Epithelial tissue is responsible for protecting the body, tags or being nutrients, and secreting substances. It is a vascular and contains no blood vessels.
  48. Explain what a nervous tissue
    Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that emerge from both. Nervous tissue allows for sensation, mental activity, and movement of skeletal muscle.
  49. What is a neuron?
    A neuron is a nerve cell. It contains a new keyless, the site of cell function. It also contains dendrites, branch like projections that come off the cell body to receive neuron impulses, bringing them into the cell body.
  50. What are the three types of muscles?
    Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  51. What is skeletal muscle?
    Connects to the skeleton and allows voluntary movements
  52. What is cardiac muscle?
    Muscle of the heart, responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. This is involuntary movements.
  53. What is smooth muscle?
    Found in locations such as the skin(arrestor pili), and digestive tract. Responsible for actions such as peristalsis.
  54. What is connective tissue?
    • Connective tissue is formed by the extracellular matrix, Richard knows you
    • don't find in cells. They can contain protein, non-fibrous posting, and fluid. It is responsible for actions such as separating structures, connecting structures, transportation of nutrients, cushioning, in installating the body, and protecting the body.
  55. Immature cells that build the matrix are called what?
    Blast cells
  56. What type of cells break down the extracellular matrix?
    Clast cells
  57. What are the types of connective tissue in the body?
    Bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, adipose, fascia, serous membranes, and blood.
  58. What is the most abundant form of connective tissue in the body?
  59. What does blood consist of?
    Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, and plasma.
  60. What are erythrocytes?
    They are also called red blood cells, responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body via hemoglobin, which is found in the cytoplasm in the cells.
  61. What are leukocytes?
    They are also called white blood cells, they are phagocytes, meaning they eat things, that help fight off infection its agents and break down dead cells and debris inside the body
  62. What are thrombocytes?
    They are also called platelets, they are responsible for clotting the blood.
  63. What is the plasma?
    The liquid portion of blood, allows transportation of blood cells throughout the body. Even hormones.
  64. What is the serious membrane?
    Forms of connective tissues that surrounds organs inside body cavities, preventing the organs from creating friction.
  65. How many serous membranes are there?
  66. Where are the serous membranes located?
    To inside the thorax and one inside the admin and pelvis.
  67. The serous membranes in the thorax, what are they and what do they surround?
    The pericardium, which surrounds the heart. And the pleura, which surrounds the lungs.
  68. resource membrane that is found in the abdomen and pelvis that separates the organs from the muscle on top of them, what is it called?
  69. What is the inner wall of the serous membrane called?
    Visceral serous membrane
  70. What is the outer wall of the surface membrane called?
    Parietal serous membrane
  71. What is the cardiovascular system responsible for?
    It is responsible for transporting blood throughout the body, bringing oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to tissues, and eliminating carbon dioxide and waste products from the body.
  72. What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
    The heart, blood vessels, and blood.
  73. What does the heart do?
    Pumps blood throughout the body.
  74. What does the heart consist of?
    It consists of the superior vena cava inferior vena cava right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aprtic valve, & aorta.
  75. What do blood vessels do?
    Create passageways for blood to travel throughout the body.
  76. What are the arteries?
    Arteries are the largest and most internal blood vessels, move blood away from the heart, and almost always carry oxygenated blood.
  77. What do veins do?
    New blood towards the heart, and almost always carries deoxygenated blood.
  78. What are capillaries?
    Microscopic blood vessels used to transport oxygen rich blood into tissues.
  79. What is the digestive system responsible for?
    Responsible for bringing food into the body, digestion, and sorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste.
  80. What does the oral cavity contain, what does it do, and what is another name for it?
    Also called the mail, contains the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue. The forms mastication and swallowing.
  81. What does the pharynx do and what it is it also called?
    It is also called the throat, lol transportation of food from the oral cavity to the esophagus.
  82. What is the esophagus?
    Tubular organ that allows transport of food from the fair next to the stomach.
  83. What does the stomach do?
    Digest and break down food into usable, as herbal nutrients.
  84. What does the liver do?
    Filters harmful chemicals from the blood, and produces bile.
  85. What does the gallbladder do?
    stores bile and empties bile into the duodenum.
  86. What does the pancreas do?
    Produce insulin, which is made of cells, and glucagon, which is alpha cells, and secretes the substances into the duodenum.
  87. What do the small intestines do?
    Absorbs nutrients into the body for use.
  88. What do the small intestines consist of?
    The duodenum, jejuum, and the ileum.
  89. What do the large intestines do?
    Absorb water, converts chime to feces, assists in eliminating of waste.
  90. In our digestive system we have sphincters. What are they?
    They are ring like bands of muscle that allow food to pass through into another organ, and to prevent food from going backwards in the digestive tract.
  91. There are four main sphincters in the digestive tract. What are they?
    The esophageal sphincter, cardiac sphincter, pylori sphincter, and ileocecal sphincter.
  92. Where is the esophageal sphincter located at?
    Between the pharynx and the esophagus.
  93. Where is the cardiac sphincter located?
    Between the esophagus and stomach.
  94. Where is the pyloric sphincter located at?
    Between the stomach and small intestine.
  95. Where is the ileocecal sphincter located at?
    Located between the small intestines and large intestines.
  96. what is the integrand system responsible for?
    Responsible for coordinating the specific activities of cells and tissues via hormone release. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
  97. What hormones do the pituitary gland secrete and what is it responsible for?
    It secretes growth hormone, prolactin, and follicle stimulating hormones. It is responsible for growth in bones, production of milk, and production of egg cells in women and sperm cells in men.
  98. What do the adrenals secrete an are responsible for?
    They secrete epinephrine and non-epinephrine , which elevate blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased blood sugar.
  99. The Pinal gland secretes what and what is it responsible for?
    It secretes melatonin and the exact role of the pineal gland is unknown but is said to help regulate sleep and wake cycles.
  100. What does the thyroid secrete and what is it responsible for?
    It secretes thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Responsible for increasing energy production.
  101. What does a para thyroid secrete and what is it responsible for?
    It secretes parathyroid hormone, which raises concentration of calcium in the blood.
  102. What does the pancreatic islets to create and what are they responsible for?
    They secrete insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers glucose concentration in the blood, while glucagon increases glucose concentration in the blood.
  103. what does insulin do to the glucose concentration in the blood?
    Lowers it.
  104. What does glucagon do to the glucose concentration in the blood?
    Increases it.
  105. What do the ovaries secrete?
    They secrete estrogen and progestrogen
  106. What do the testes secrete?
  107. What does the integumentary system contain?
    The skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, and sensory receptors.
  108. What is the integumentary system responsible for?
    For protection, secretion, absorption, and detecting sensation.
  109. What is skin?
    Made of epithelial tissue, skin is avascular and is used for protection
  110. What are Sudoriferous glands?
    They secrete sweat, which is a homeostatic mechanism. They are forms of extrocrine glands.
  111. What are sebaceous glands?
    They secrete oil. Sebaceous glands are forms of exocrine glands.
  112. What do the sensory receptors detect?
    Sensation in the skin.
  113. What do the pacinian corpuscles detect?
    Deep pressure
  114. What do the meissner's corpuscles detect?
    Light pressure
  115. What do the nociceptors detect?
  116. What do the thermoreceptors detect?
    Detect differentiations in temperature
  117. What does the lymphatic system consist of?
    lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph, and lymph organs.
  118. What are lymph vessels?
    They are a one way system, lymph vessels only flow one direction. The vessels absorb foreign bodies in nutrients from tissue
  119. What are lymph nodes?
    A lymph node is a mass of lymph tissue, responsible for filtering and restoring foreign objects, helps to produce antibodies.
  120. What is lymph?
    Made of mostly water, protein, leukocytes, urea, salts, and glucose
  121. What does the spleen do?
    Removes old red blood cells from the blood stream
  122. What does the thymus do?
    Produces T lymphocytes. Also known as T cells.
  123. What does a muscular system consist of And are responsible for ?
    They consist of muscles, and are responsible for movement and creating heat.
  124. For a muscle to contract what must be present?
  125. The contractile unit of the muscle is called what?
  126. How are sarcomeres formed?
    They are formed by thin filaments and thick filaments. The thin filaments are called actin and the thick filaments or called myosin.
  127. What are thin filaments called?
  128. What are thick filaments called?
  129. What is a muscle contraction?
    A contraction is when tension in the muscle increases.
  130. The length of the muscle stays the same, but tension in the muscle increases. What kind of contraction is this ?
    Isometric contraction
  131. The tension in the muscle stays the same, but the length of the muscle changes. What kind of contraction is this ?
    Isotonic contraction
  132. The tension in the muscle increases, and muscle length decreases. What kind of contraction is this?
    Concentric contraction
  133. The tension in the muscle stays the same, and muscle length increases. What kind of contraction is this?
    Eccentric contraction
  134. What is the prime mover/agonist?
    the muscle of a synergist group responsible for movement.
  135. What is a synergist muscle?
    A muscle that assists the prime mover in performing the action.
  136. What is a antagonist muscle?
    A muscle that opposes the prime mover, performing the opposite action.
  137. What is the fixator muscle?
    A muscle that stabilizes an area so an action can be performed.
  138. What are the two branches of the nervous system?
    The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  139. What nervous system does the peripheral nervous system contain?
    The autonomic nervous system.
  140. What does the central nervous system contain?
    The brain and the spinal cord.
  141. What does the brain consist of?
    The cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.
  142. What is the cerebrum?
    The largest part of the brain, split into left and right hemispheres, responsible for voluntary actions and sensory reception. Each hemisphere contains lobes, named after the bones overlaying them.
  143. which lobe is responsible for voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, and mood?
    The frontal lobe
  144. Which lobe is responsible for processing most sensory information?
    the parietal lobe
  145. Which lobe is responsible for auditory and olfactory processing, and memory?
    The temporal lobe
  146. Which lobe is responsible for visual input?
    The occipital lobe
  147. What is the cerebellum responsible for?
    It is responsible for muscle tone, coordination, and balance.
  148. What does the brainstem contain?
    The medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
  149. What regulates the body's vital functions?
    The medulla oblongata
  150. What creates a pathway for communication between the cerebrum and the cerebellum?
  151. What is responsible for visual reflexes?
    The midbrain
  152. What does the peripheral nervous system contain?
    It contains nerves in the spinal cord and brain.
  153. How many pairs of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord?
    31 pairs
  154. How many pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain?
    12 nerves
  155. Which three cranial nerves do you need to know about?
    Trigeminal (V), Facial (VII), and Vagus (X).
  156. How are the cranial nerves labeled?
    By Roman numerals.
  157. What is the autonomic nervous system responsible for?
    Responsible for maintenance of homeostasis within the body.
  158. What are two autonomic nervous responses in the body?
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  159. There is a nother name for the sympathetic response. What is it?
    the fight or flight response
  160. What happens when the sympathetic response is activated?
    Increases norepinephrine in the body, increases heart rate. It also closes down the digestive organs and pulls blood from them for the use in the muscles.
  161. There is a nother name for the parasympathetic response. What is it?
    The rest and digest response
  162. When a person synthetic response is activated what does it do?
    decreases heart rate, brings blood into the digestive organs to stimulate peristalsis.
  163. What cranial nerve controls the parasympathetic response?
    The vagus nerve.
  164. What does the respiratory system do?
    Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and aids and eliminating waste from the body.
  165. What does the nose do?
    Conducts and warm air coming in and exiting the body. Filters air via mucus
  166. What does larynx do?
    Tube at the front of the pharynx, strengthens the muscles. Contains the epiglottis, which prevents food from entering the larynex during swallowing. Allows speech.
  167. What does the trachea do?
    Cartilage inferior to the larynx, allows passage of air into the lungs.
  168. What do the bronchi do?
    They split into right and left, divides into smaller branches that move into the lungs. Smaller branches are called bronchioles. They secrete mucus to trap dirt and debris, which is the expelled from the lungs by cilia.
  169. What are alveoli and what are they responsible for?
    They are air sacs at the end of the bronchial tubes, connect to blood vessels. Responsible for exchanging of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  170. Where is the diaphragm located and what does it do?
    is a muscle attached to the base of the rib cage in vertebrae, I create a vacuum to bring air into the lungs and expel air from the lungs. When they diaphragm descends air enters the lungs. When they die frim Ascends, the air exits the lungs.
  171. When the diaphragm descends the air is...
    Entering the lungs
  172. When the diaphragm ascends the air is...
    Exiting the lungs
  173. What does the skeletal system contain? And what are they responsible for?
    They contain bones. They are responsible for protecting the body, creating blood cells, providing structure, and giving muscles a location to attach to which permits movement.
  174. What does the axial skeleton consist of?
    The skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
  175. What does the skull do and what does it contain?
    The skull protects the brain. It contains the following bones: frontal, occipital, paritual, temporal, mandible, maxilla, sphenoid, vomer, nasal,ethmoid, lacrimal, zygomatic.
  176. What are the four main structures of the cranium, holding the bones of the skull together?
    The sagittal structure, coronal structure, squamou , and the lambdoid.
  177. What does the sagittal structure connect?
    It connects the two parietal bones
  178. What does the coronal structure connect?
    It connects the frontal bone and the parietal bone
  179. What does the squamous structure connect?
    It connects the temporal bone and the parietal bone
  180. What does the lambdoid structure connect?
    It connects the occipital bone and the parietal bone.
  181. What does the vertebral column protect?
    The spinal cord
  182. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones. what are they?
    7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 1 sacral vertebrae , and 1 coccygeal vertebrae.
  183. What is another name for the thoracic cage?
    Rib cage.
  184. In the rib cage there are ribs. From 1 to 12 can you name all the ribs?
    The superior 7 pairs are called true ribs, the inferior 5 pairs or cold false ribs. And ribs number 11 and 12 or called floating ribs.
  185. what is the function of ribs number 1 through 10?
    It protects the interior organs including the lungs .
  186. What is the function of ribs 11 and 12?
    They protect the kidneys.
  187. What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
    It consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the pectoral and pelvis gridles.
  188. What does the upper limb contain?
    The humerus, radius, owner, carpals, metacarpals, & phalanges.
  189. How many carpals are in the hand?
    They have eight carpals.
  190. What does the scaphoid carpal articulate with?
    The radius
  191. What does the lunate carple articulate with?
    The ulna
  192. What does the trapezium carpal articulate with?
    The metacarpal of the thumb to make the saddle joint.
  193. What does the lower limb contain?
    The femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.
  194. How many tarsals are there?
  195. What does the talus tarsal articulate with?
    With the tibia to make the ankle joint. Which also can be called the Talatibia bone or talacorl bone.
  196. What does the pectoral girdle contain?
    Two clavicles and two scapulae
  197. What does the pectoral girdle help with?
    It helps the upper body hold together
  198. What does he pelvic girdle contain?
    It contains the ileum, ischium, pubis, and sacrum.
  199. In the pelvic griddle, what three bones are fused together?
    The ileum, ischium, and pubis
  200. What bone is the only bone in the body that is part of both the appendicular and axial skeleton?
    The sacrum.
  201. from least movable to most livable list the type of joint classifications.
    Synarthrotic, Amphiarthrotic, Diarthrotic. (SAD)
  202. How many synovial joints are there?
  203. What are the 6 synovial joints?
    Ball and socket, hinge, pivot, plane or gliding, saddle, and ellipsoid or condyloid.
  204. Explain ball and socket joint
    Ball on the end of one bone that fits into the socket of another.
  205. What does a hinge joint allow?
    It allows only flexion and extension.
  206. What does the pivot joint allow?
    It allows only rotation.
  207. Explain plane or gliding joints?
    Joints are created by flat bone surfaces. Examples would be nice metacarpals in your hand.
  208. Explain saddle joint
    Created by to saddle shaped articulating bones surfaces. There is only one in the body and it is the thumb.
  209. Explain ellipsoid/condyloid joint
    Condyle of one bone fits into elliptical cavity of another. An example would be your knuckles.
  210. Explain the movement flexion
    Decreasing the angle of a joint
  211. Explain the movement extension
    Increasing the angle of a joint
  212. Explain the movement adduction
    Moving a structure toward the midline
  213. Explain the movement abduction
    Moving a structure away from the midline
  214. Explain the movement protraction
    moving a structure anteriorly
  215. Explain the movement retraction
    Moving a structure posteriorly
  216. Explain the movement inversion
    Turning the sole of the foot in towards the midline
  217. Explain the movement eversion
    Turning the sole of your foot out away from the midline
  218. Explain the movement elevation
    Moving a structure superiorly
  219. Explain the movement depression
    Moving a structure inferiorly
  220. Explain the movement supination
    Rotating palm so it is facing up
  221. Explain the movement pronation
    Rotating palm so it is facing downwards
  222. Explain the movement rotation
    Turning a structure around its long axis
  223. Explain the movements circumduction
    Turning a structure around the circumference of a joint
  224. Explain the movement opposition
    Moving structures in opposite directions
  225. Explain the movement lateral deviation
    Moving a structure from side to side
  226. What does the urinary system consist of?
    It consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
  227. What is the urinary system responsible for?
    It is responsible for elimination of waste from the body, reabsorbstation of nutrients, and pH regulation
  228. What do the kidneys do?
    • The filtrate and reabsorb substances back into the body. Regulates the
    • amount of electrolytes in the body. Inside each kidney, there are 1 million nephrons, which are responsible for reabsorbing vitamins, electrolytes, and water back into the bloodstream.
  229. What do the ureters do?
    Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  230. What does the urinary bladder do?
    Stores urine
  231. What does the urethra do?
    It transports urine from the urinary bladder out of the body.
  232. What is the male reproductive system responsible for and what does it consist of?
    It is responsible for producing spermatozoa and male hormones. It consists of the penis, testes, scrotum, and ducts that carry sperm.
  233. Where are the testes found in what are they responsible for?
    They are found inside the scrotum and are responsible for production of spermatozoa and testosterone. They are also attached to the urethra via the vas deferens.
  234. What is the penis responsible for?
    Responsible for sexual intercourse, allowing passageway of sperm and urine out of the body.
  235. What is the female reproductive system responsible for?
    It is responsible for producing egg cells, estrogen, and development of a fetus.
  236. What does the female reproductive system consist of?
    It consists of the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
  237. Where is the vagina located and what does it allow to do?
    It is located between the cervix and the opening of the outside of the body. Allows a passageway for the penis during intercourse.
  238. What do the ovaries do?
    The ovary glands produce oocytes, also known as egg cells, and estrogen
  239. What are the fallopian tubes responsible for?
    They allow passage of oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization most often occurs here.
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Anatomy and physiology MEBLEx book pratice 2015.txt
2015-05-08 18:44:41

Section: Anatomy and Physiology
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