Pathology_ diseases by definition MBLEX book 2015.txt

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Pathology_ diseases by definition MBLEX book 2015.txt
2015-05-13 14:24:26

Section: Pathology (definitions)
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  1. Anemia
    Decrease in oxygen carrying ability of the blood, Most commonly due to the lack of erythrocyts, hemoglobin, or both. Causes fatigue due to hypoxia.
  2. Aneurysm
    Bulging of a wall of an artery outward, caused by a weakened arterial wall. Most likely the result of hypertension putting strain on the arterial wall. May break open, resulting in severe hemorrhaging internally which may be fatal.
  3. Arteriosclerosis
    Hardening of the walls of the arteries, caused by a lack of elasticity in the arteries. Reduces circulation, which may lead to hypertension.
  4. Atherosclerosis
    Buildup of fatty plaque, or lipids, on the walls of the arteries, reducing blood flow. May result in hypertension in the formation of blood clots.
  5. Embolism
    A blood clot or bubble of gas freely moving throughout the circulatory system. May become lodged in the heart, lungs, or brain, resulting in a lack of blood flow to the structures, causing neurosis.
  6. Heart murmur
    Flow of blood backwards in the heart due to malfunctioning valves, typically the bicupid this or mitral valve. Formation of blood clots may occur, along with fatigue.
  7. Hypertension
    High blood pressure, 140/90 mm Hg. Results in inelasticity of the arterial walls, reducing circulation.
  8. Migraine
    Vascular headache. Calls by dilation of extracranial blood vessels, which puts substantial pressure upon the meninges, producing intense pain. May be caused by stress or smoke, among other things.
  9. Myocardial infarction
    Death of heart tissue, usually caused by a blockage in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for supplying the myocardium with blood. This is also known as a heart attack.
  10. Phlebitis
    Information of a vein, caused by trauma, pregnancy, prolonged periods of sitting or standing, and may be present with blood clots.
  11. Raynaud's syndrome
    Constriction of blood vessels in the hands and feet, which reduces blood supply. Calls by cigarette smoking, cold exposure, or stress.
  12. Transient ischemic attack
    Temporary cerebral dysfunction resulting from ischemia in part of the brain. Also known as the mini stroke, it can be a precursor to a more serious stroke in the future.
  13. Varicose veins
    Swollen veins, caused by dysfunction in the valves inside the veins, resulting in blood pulling down the legs enforcing the veins to ward the surface of the body.
  14. Cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gall bladder, usually do to a blockage of the cystic duct, stopping the flow of bile into the doudenum. Blockage is most commonly caused by gallstones.
  15. Cirrhosis
    destruction of the liver cells, resulting in the formation of Adhesions in fibrous material and the liver, causing the liver to become a yellowish orange color. Liver function is gradually impaired.
  16. Crohn's disease
    Autoimmune disorder which affects the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in information and ulceration of the mucous membranes, in which scar tissue can develop.
  17. Diverticulosis
    Development of small pouches that protrudes from the walls of the large intestine, calls by weakening of the walls due to a lack of substances for the walls to press against.
  18. Diverticulitis
    Information of diverticular pouches, which may become abscessed and develop ulcers
  19. gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small intestines, most commonly caused by food poisoning or emotional stress.
  20. Hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver most commonly associated with a viral infection, which may be acute or chronic. Results in pain, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and jaundice in the acute stage of infection.
  21. Hernia
    Protrusion of an organ through the surrounding connective tissue membrane. May result in pain and impaired body function, developing on the location and structures involved.
  22. Gastroesophageal esophageal reflux disease
    Also known as GERD, hydrochloric acid flowing from the stomach up words into the esophagus, producing a burning sensation. May result in ulcers in the esophagus.
  23. Ulcerative colitis
    Autoimmune disorder resulting in inflammation of the walls of the large intestine, producing ulcerations and may result in bloody stools, diarrhea, and weight loss.
  24. Addison's disease
    Autoimmune disorder which results in the degeneration of the adrenal cortex, causing a decrease in and renal function.
  25. Cushing disease
    Overproduction of corticosteroids, resulting in increased weight and muscle atrophy.
  26. Diabetes mellitus
    Increased levels of glucose in the blood stream. Diabetes type 1 is caused by a decrease in insulin levels in the body, which restricts the breaking down of glucose. While diabetes type 2 is caused by the body being desensitized to insulin, which is then unable to break down glucose.
  27. Goiter
    Enlargement of the thyroid gland, commonly seen with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, inflammation, or lack of iodine in the diet.
  28. Grave's disease
    Autoimmune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism, anxiety, trembling, and fatigue. May also result in protrusion of the eyeballs.
  29. Hyperthyroidism
    Increased thyroid function, result in a goiter, hypersensitivity to heat, increased appetite, and an increased respiration.
  30. Hypothyroidism
    Lack of thyroid hormone in the body, results in fatigue, weight gain, edema, and sensitivity to cold.
  31. Acne
    Bacterial infection of the skin, due to numerous factors, including testosterone production, stress, and hormonal imbalance.
  32. Athlete's foot
    Also called tinea Pedis, it is a highly contagious fungal infection found on the feet, primarily between the toes, which may result in breaking of the skin and lead to bacterial infection.
  33. Basal cell carcinoma
    Least serious, slow growing, most common form of skin cancer, usually due to over exposure to sunlight
  34. First degree burn
    Most common, least serious. Most common form is a sunburn, affecting the epidermis, resulting in inflammation and irritation of the skin.
  35. Second degree burn
    burn moves through the epidermis into the dermis, which leads to the development of blisters and swelling.
  36. 3rd degree burn
    burn moves through the epidermis and the dermis, into the subcutaneous layer. Results in neurosis and scarring of the skin. And may lead to infection if not treated properly.
  37. Cellulitis
    Acute infection caused by staph or strep bacteria, which often enters the body through exposure to wounds, affecting nearby tissues. Presents with well-defined borders of information.
  38. Decubitis ulcer
    Also known as a pressure ulcer or bed sore, results in ulcerations caused by prolonged pressure placed on a part of the body coming causing ischiemia and ultimately neurosis of the affected tissue.
  39. Eczema
    idiopathic disorder causing dry, red, itchy patches of skin. Maybe be either acute or chronic
  40. Herpes simplex
    High contagious chronic viral infection, resulting in cold sores around the mucous membranes.
  41. Hives
    also known as urticaria, it is an inflammatory reaction in response to exposure to an allergen or emotional stress. To be either acute or chronic, depending on the cause.
  42. Impetigo
    Bacterial infection caused by staph or strep, resulting in stores that form around the mouth, nose, and hands. Mostly seen in children, it is highly contagious.
  43. Lice
    Highly contagious parasitic infection, found in hair. Produce eggs sacs called nits.
  44. Malignant melanoma
    Overproduction of melanocytes, resulting in formation of tumors that may spread to other regions of the body. A= asymmetric, B= border, C= color, D= diameter, E= elevated.
  45. Mole
    Benign skin lesion, resulting from an increase amount of melonin in the area.
  46. Psoriasis
    Autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks epithelial tissue. Epithelial cells quickly regenerate at a rate quicker than normal, which results in thick, dry, silvery patches of the skin.
  47. Ring worm
    Also known as tinea corporis, it is a fungal infection resulting in circular raised patches on the skin.
  48. Rosacea
    A form of acne, results in a butterfly rash that appears across the nose and cheeks. Exacerbated by exposure to cold.
  49. Scleroderma
    An autoimmune disorder, resulting in excessive collagen production in the skin, causing the skin to become hardened. Can be a sign of organ failure.
  50. Sebaceous cyst
    Blockage of a sebaceous gland, resulting in the body forming a thick membrane of connective tissue around the gland, limiting tissue damage as a result of infection.
  51. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Form by skin cancer which develops into an area of ulceration, caused by over exposure to sunlight, or may be found in the mouth of a person who to tobacco or smokes cigarettes.
  52. Wart
    Epidermal protrusion resulting from infection by the human papillomavirus. Results in increased keratin production on the area of infection.
  53. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    AIDS. Viral infection, caused by HIV, which destroys the bodies T cells, effectively disabling the immune system.
  54. Allergies
    Hypersensitivity of the body to agents which are normally harmless in most people.
  55. Cronic fatigue syndrome
    idiopathic disease which results in symptoms such as insomnia, low grade fever, and irritability.
  56. Lymphedema
    Increased amounts of interstitial fluid in a limb, resulting in swelling. Caused by inflammation, trauma, or blocked lymph channels.
  57. Lupus
    Autoimmune disorder affecting the connective tissues of the body, resulting in a rash across the face, scales on the skin, fatigue, fever, photosensitivity, and weight loss.
  58. Mononucleosis
    Viral infection, resulting in a high fever, fatigue, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
  59. Pitting edema
    Swollen area, leaves pits in the skin after applying pressure. May be a sign of organ failure.
  60. Adhesive capsulitis
    Formation of adhesions that stick the joint capsule to the head of a humorous, severely restricting the range of motion at the shoulder joint. May also be caused by hypertonicity of subscapularis.
  61. Atrophy
    Loss of muscle density due to lack of use or malnutritionment.
  62. Fibromyalgia
    inflammatory disease affecting muscles and connective tissue, resulting in pain, numbness, tingling sensation in the limbs, and fatigue
  63. Golfers elbow
    A form of tendonitis, results in inflammation and pain located at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The flexors of the wrist are affected, as they originate on the medial epicondyle of the humerus.
  64. Muscular dystrophy
    Autoimmune disorder, resulting in degeneration of muscles. Muscle degeneration leads to a trophy and lack of use eventually results in paralysis and deformity.
  65. Strain
    An injury to a muscle or tendon, may be caused by over exertion or over stretching.
  66. Tendonitis
    Inflammation of a tendon, results from injury to either the tenoperiosteal or musculotendinous junction.
  67. Drop foot
    Paralysis or severe weakness of the tibialis anterior, placing the ankle into force planter flexion. May also be caused by hypertonicity gastrocnemius.
  68. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
    TMJ, pain in the general upon opening and closing, clicking at the temporomandibular joint, and decreasing range of motion. Results from trauma to the joints or muscles , clenching, grinding, stress, or a combo of these.
  69. Tennis elbow
    A common form of tendonitis, results in inflammation and pain located at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The extensors of the wrist are affected, as the originate at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
  70. Torticollis
    Spasm of the sternocleidomastoid unilaterally, forcing the head to lean to one side. Vertigo may result.
  71. Whiplash
    Straining or spraining of tendons, muscles, and ligaments in the neck due to violent forward motion of the head and neck. As a result, tendons, muscles, and ligaments may be injured in weekend, with an increase in headaches, pain, and dizziness. Most commonly seen in auto mobile accidents.
  72. Alzheimer's disease
    Progressive degeneration of brain tissue, resulting in loss of memory, dementia, confusion, and disorientation.
  73. Bell's palsy
    Paralysis of one side of the face as a result of inflammation or compression of the facial nerve. May be permanent or may subside.
  74. Cerebral palsy
    Loss of muscle control and coordination due to damage to certain parts of the brain during early life stages such as infancy.
  75. Carpal tunnel syndrome
    Compression of the median nerve by the transverse carpal ligament, resulting in loss of function and sensation in the hand.
  76. Encephalitis
    Inflammation of the brain, most commonly caused by a viral infection. The virus usually enters the body after contact with mosquitoes. Inflammation may result in necrotic brain tissue and death.
  77. Hemiplegia
    Paralysis of one side of the body, usually as the result of a stroke, which may impair function to spacific regions of the body.
  78. Meningitis
    Inflammation of the meninges. Bacterial meningitis is the most severe form, which may result in death. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. Highly contagious.
  79. Multiple sclerosis
    Autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths surrounding axons in the central nervous system, causing degeneration of the myelin. Degeneration also results in scarring on the axons, which results in severe pain in acute stage.
  80. Paraplegia
    Paralysis of the lower limbs due to an injury to the spinal cord anywhere below the t1 segment. Loss of function results in muscle atrophy.
  81. Parkinson's disease
    Shaking or trembling due to reduced levels of neurotransmitter dopamine in the body. Effects fine motor movement at first, then effects larger movements as the disease advances.
  82. Pleurisy
    Information of pleural membranes surrounding lines, resulting in a burning sensation upon inhalation.
  83. Quadriplegia
    Paralysis of the arms and legs, resulting from an injury to the spinal cord between c5 and t1
  84. Sciatica
    Compression on a sciatic nerve by hypertonic muscles, most commonly the piriformis. Results in pain radiating down the leg, and may even reach the bottom of the feet
  85. Trigeminal neuralgia
    Compression on the trigeminal nerve, resulting in severe pain around the mouth, nose, and eyes.
  86. Apnea
    Cessation of breathing, temporarily. Most commonly occurs during sleep, commonly caused by compression of Airways by the tongue or pharynx.
  87. Asthma
    Spasm of smooth muscles in the bronchial tubes, which is reaction to stimuli such as allergens or emotional stress. Mucous production is also increased, further reducing air intake, creating wheezing sounds upon inhalation.
  88. Laryngitis
    Inflammation of the Larynx resulting in loss of voice. Most commonly caused by an infection, but can be caused by cigarette smoke.
  89. Cystic fibrosis
    Genetic disorder producing thick mucus throughout the respiratory tract, reducing air intake. Mucus blocks the cystic duct, limiting absorption of nutrients.
  90. Bronchitis
    Inflammation of bronchial tubes, with additional mucus production. Acute bronchitis is the side effect of a primary infection such as influenza, while chronic bronchitis is the result of irritants entering the lungs over a long period of time, such as cigarette smoke.
  91. Emphysema
    Destruction of lung alveoli due to exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, reducing oxygen intake and carbon dioxide output.
  92. Influenza
    Acute viral infection, resulting in an inflamed pharynx in nasal cavity, increased mucus production, and fever
  93. Pneumonia
    Strep infection in the lungs, which fills the lung alveoli with fluid and waste products, reducing air intake.
  94. Ankylosing spondylitis
    Progressive autoimmune disorder resulting in degeneration of intervertebral discs. Discs degeneration leads to loss of curvature to the spine, fusion of the vertebrae together, and loss of motion at the site of bone fusion.
  95. Bakers cyst
    Formation of a sack behind the knee as a result of synovial fluid leaking from the joint cavity.
  96. Bursitis
    Information of a bursa sac, usually due to trauma to a bursa. Often presents with fluid buildup, restricting range of motion at the side if around a joint
  97. Dislocation
    Displacement of a bone from its normal location, damaging tissues around the area. Severely weakened the joint following the dislocation, allowing for further dislocation to occur.
  98. Fracture
    A break in a bone. A simple fracture remains inside the skin, while a compound fracture breaks through the skin.
  99. Potts fracture
    Fracture of the lateral malleolus of the fibula
  100. Calles fracture
    Fracture of the distal radius results in dorsal displacement of the wrist and hand.
  101. Gout
    Excessive uric acid build up in the body, resulting in a severely inflamed big toe, and they also be seen in the arms and hands as well. Caused by an inability of the body to eliminate uric acid normally.
  102. Herniated disc
    Protrusion of the gelatinous center of an intervertebral disc, known as the nucleus pulposus, through the tough cartilaginous portion of an intervertebral disc, known as the Annulus fibrasis. Results in compression of spinal nerves, producing pain.
  103. Kyphosis
    Hyper curvature of the thoracic vertebrae, producing a humpback appearance. Also known as dowager's hump. Can be caused by tight chest muscles, weekend and back muscles, or other conditions such as osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis
  104. Lordosis
    Hyper curvature of the lumbar vertebrae, forcing the vertebrae anteriorly. Also known as swayback. Came be caused by hyper tonicity of the psoas major, or weakness in the rectus abdominis. May also result in over stretching of the hamstrings.
  105. Osteoarthritis
    Erosion of the hyline cartilage between articulating bones. Resulting in increased friction between the bones, causing pain and inflammation. Also known as wear and tear arthritis.
  106. Osteoprosis
    Degeneration of bone tissue, due to a lack of estrogen entering into the bones. Usually seen in postmenopausal women, due to the lack of estrogen production. Bones become thin and brittle, making them prone to injuries such as fracture.
  107. Rheumatory arthritis
    Auto immune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks synovial membrane surrounding joints. Upon degeneration, the membrane is replaced by fibrous tissue, which restricts range of motion in the joints. Usually takes place at the Metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand. the singers are turned to a lateral position, making function difficult.
  108. Scoliosis
    Lateral curvature of the vertebrae, most commonly in the thoracic vertebrae. Can be caused by severely hypertonic muscles, congenital deformities of the vertebral column, and poor posture.
  109. Osteopomyelitis
    Bacterial infection affecting the bone, which may enter into the marrow in periouteum.
  110. Shin splints
    Pain along the medial interior shaft of the tibia, usually due to tearing of muscle attachments. Results from overtraining, running, or jumping on hard surfaces, wearing the wrong equipment, ATC. Also known as medial tibial stress syndrome and Perrostitis
  111. Sprain
    Injury to a ligament, caused by over stretching or tearing of a little bit. Grade 1 is stretching of a ligament without tearing. Grade 2 is partial tearing of a ligament that presents with bruising and information. Grade 3 is complete rupture of a ligament which requires surgery to repair.
  112. Cystitis
    Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder, resulting in bloody urine, pain, and increased urination frequency.
  113. Pyelonephritis
    Bacterial infection of the kidneys, usually results after obtaining cystitis.
  114. Uremia
    Excessive amounts of urea in the blood stream, usually a sign of renal failure, caused by an inability of the kidneys to filter properly.
  115. Urinary tract infection
    Bacterial infection typically affecting both the urethra and urinary bladder.