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- The first enzyme that is formed.
- Not usable yet.
Complete, ready to work enzyme.
- This binds to the apoenzyme.
- Organic molecule.
- Vitamins B
- Inorganic Ions
- Nonprotein portion, helps the enzyme become active along with the apoenzyme.
The reactant acted upon by the haloenzyme.
- NAD, FAD, Coenzyme A, Folic Acid.
- Very important during metabolism.
- They are all derivatives of Vitamin B and cofactors.
- This is when heat, pH, or chemicals can disrupt the structure of an enzyme.
- Lose confirmation = inactive proteins.
- Sometimes a reaction is reversible, but others are not.
- Competes for Substrate.
- Fills active site.
- Some bind irreversibly others reversible.
- Concentration of Substrate vs. Inhibitor.
- Many toxins are competitive.
- Does not compete for sites.
- Allosteric Site: Binds to this second site.
- The end product.
- Multiple enzymes are involved.
- The end product goes back up and takes the alsteric site.
- It turns off the system.
- Self-regulating loop.
- Less energy is needed, which makes it beneficial.
- Oxidation: Removal of electrons from an atom, produces energy.
- Reduction: Gaining of electrons.
- NAD is transformed into NADH/FADH, a Hydrogen is moved over and brings protons with it.
- Generating ATP.
- Adding a phosphate to a molecule.
- Takes place in a chloroplast.
- Loses a phosphate through ATP.
- Part of the redox reactions.
- ATP generated from ADP and the removal of a phosphatefrom a substrate.
- Created then and there.
- Electrons from organic compounds are transferred to electron carrier molecules (NAD and FAD).
- Prokaryotes: Plasma Membrane.
- Eukaryotes: Mitochondria.
- Electron Transport Chain.
- Breakdown of carbs to produce energy.
- ATP generating method that oxidizes molecules and the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule.
- Aerobic: Humans, more energy, WITH oxygen.
- Anaerobic: Energy created WITHOUT oxygen.
- Final electron acceptor is an organic molecule.
- No oxygen.
- Much less ATP generated.
- When glucose is broken down into smaller components.
- Transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to glucose, raises the energy level of glucose.
- Breaking of 6-carbon glucose into 2x 3-carbon molecules (pyruvate).
- Transfer of 2 electrons to the coenzyme NAD (form NADH –reduced).
- Capture of energy in the form of ATP (small amount, Net 2 ATP).
- Uses 2 ATP, Generates 4 ATP (2 ATP, 2 NADH).
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
- Breaks down glucose but also 5 carbon sugars.
- 1 ATP produced for each glucose.
Similar too glycolysis, net yield of 1 ATP.
Prep Step before Krebs Cycle
- CoA needed.
- Pyruvic acid into Acetyl-CoA – NADH created at
- this point (2 per pyruvic, 4 per glucose)
- 2 CO2's lost.
Krebs/TCA cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
- Sequence of reactions taking acetyl groups and oxidizing them to CO2.
- Oxidation of carbon, transfer of electrons to coenzymes, substrate energy level capture.
- Per Glucose:
- *2 GTP (ATP) through substrate level
- *6 NADH – feeds into electron transport chain
- *2 FADH2 – feeds into ETC
- *4 CO2’s – 2 carbons feed into the
- cycle, attach to a 4 to make a 6 carbon, lose two carbons each turn of the cycle