Lecture 9: Microbial Metabolism (Quiz 5)

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Lecture 9: Microbial Metabolism (Quiz 5)
2015-05-09 01:23:11
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  1. Apoenzyme
    • The first enzyme that is formed.
    • Not usable yet.
  2. Haloenzyme
    Complete, ready to work enzyme.
  3. Coenzyme
    • This binds to the apoenzyme.
    • Organic molecule.
    • Vitamins B
  4. Cofactor
    • Inorganic Ions
    • Minerals
    • Nonprotein portion, helps the enzyme become active along with the apoenzyme.
  5. Substrate
    The reactant acted upon by the haloenzyme.
  6. Important Coenzymes?
    • NAD, FAD, Coenzyme A, Folic Acid.
    • Very important during metabolism.
    • They are all derivatives of Vitamin B and cofactors.
  7. Denaturation
    • This is when heat, pH, or chemicals can disrupt the structure of an enzyme.
    • Lose confirmation = inactive proteins.
    • Sometimes a reaction is reversible, but others are not.
  8. Competitive Inhibition
    • Competes for Substrate.
    • Fills active site.
    • Some bind irreversibly others reversible.
    • Concentration of Substrate vs. Inhibitor.
    • Many toxins are competitive.
  9. Non-Competitive Inhibition
    • Does not compete for sites.
    • Allosteric Site: Binds to this second site.
  10. Feedback Inhibition
    • The end product.
    • Multiple enzymes are involved.
    • The end product goes back up and takes the alsteric site.
    • It turns off the system.
    • Self-regulating loop.
    • Less energy is needed, which makes it beneficial.
  11. Redox Reactions
    • Oxidation: Removal of electrons from an atom, produces energy.
    • Reduction: Gaining of electrons.
    • NAD is transformed into NADH/FADH, a Hydrogen is moved over and brings protons with it.
  12. Phosphorylation
    • Generating ATP.
    • Adding a phosphate to a molecule.
    • Takes place in a chloroplast.
  13. Dephosphoylation
    • Loses a phosphate through ATP.
    • Part of the redox reactions.
  14. Substrate Phosphorylation
    • ATP generated from ADP and the removal of a phosphatefrom a substrate.
    • Cytoplasm.
    • Created then and there.
  15. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Electrons from organic compounds are transferred to electron carrier molecules (NAD and FAD).
    • Prokaryotes: Plasma Membrane.
    • Eukaryotes: Mitochondria.
    • Electron Transport Chain.
  16. Cellular Respiration
    • Breakdown of carbs to produce energy.
    • ATP generating method that oxidizes molecules and the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule.
    • Aerobic: Humans, more energy, WITH oxygen.
    • Anaerobic: Energy created WITHOUT oxygen.
  17. Fermentation
    • Final electron acceptor is an organic molecule.
    • No oxygen.
    • Much less ATP generated.
  18. Glycolysis
    • When glucose is broken down into smaller components.
    • Transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to glucose, raises the energy level of glucose.
    • Breaking of 6-carbon glucose into 2x 3-carbon molecules (pyruvate).
    • Transfer of 2 electrons to the coenzyme NAD (form NADH –reduced).
    • Capture of energy in the form of ATP (small amount, Net 2 ATP).
    • Uses 2 ATP, Generates 4 ATP (2 ATP, 2 NADH).
  19. Pentose Phosphate Pathway
    • Breaks down glucose but also 5 carbon sugars.
    • 1 ATP produced for each glucose.
  20. Entner-Douderoff Pathway
    Similar too glycolysis, net yield of 1 ATP.
  21. Prep Step before Krebs Cycle
    • CoA needed.
    • Pyruvic acid into Acetyl-CoA – NADH created at
    • this point (2 per pyruvic, 4 per glucose)
    • 2 CO2's lost.
  22. Krebs/TCA cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
    • Sequence of reactions taking acetyl groups and oxidizing them to CO2.
    • Oxidation of carbon, transfer of electrons to coenzymes, substrate energy level capture.
    • Per Glucose:
    • *2 GTP (ATP) through substrate level
    • *6 NADH – feeds into electron transport chain
    • *2 FADH2 – feeds into ETC
    • *4 CO2’s – 2 carbons feed into the
    • cycle, attach to a 4 to make a 6 carbon, lose two carbons each turn of the cycle