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What is communication?
An interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them
What is effective communication?
What is efficient communication?
- Effective communication: When the intended message of the sender and the interpreted meaning of the receiver are one and the same.
- Efficient communication: Occurs at minimum cost in terms of resources expended (for example time). Not always effective, but effective communication may not always be efficient.
What is persuasive communication?
What is credible communication?
- Persuasive: Presents a message in a manner that causes the other person to support it
- Credible: earns trust, respect and integrity in the eyes of others
What are barriers to effect communication?
noise: anything that interferes with communication effectiveness
- Poor choice of channels: the medium through which message is conveyed from sender to receiver.
- In general, written channels are best for simple messages requiring extensive dissemination. Oral channels are best for complex messages where immediate feedback in valuable (also more personal and can create a supportive, emotional climate.
- Poor written or verbal expression: the use of jargon
- Physical distractions: drop ins, interruptions
- Status effects: the hierarchy of authority in organisations. Can lead to filtering (the intentional distortion of information to make it appear more favourable)
How to improve communication
- Transparency: being honest, open sharing accurate information
- Active listening: the process of taking action to help the source of a message say exactly what he or she really means
- Body language: make sure body language reinforces your message and remains consistent with that message. Otherwise, it leads to mixed messages
- Constructive feedback: the process of telling someone else how you feel
What are the 5 rules to being an active listener?
1. Listen for message content. Try to hear exactly what content is being conveyed in the message
2. Listen for feelings. Try to identify how the source feels about the content in the message.
3. Respond to feelings. Let the source know that the feelings are being recognised.
4. Note all cues. Be sensitive to non-verbal and verbal messages; be alert for mixed messages
5. Paraphrase and restate. State back to the source what you think you are hearing.
What is conflict and the 2 types and the 2 consequences
- Conflict: a disagreement over issues of substance and/or an emotional antagonism.
- Substantive conflicts involve disagreements over goals, resources, rewards, policies, procedures and job assignments.
- Emotional conflicts result from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear and resentment as well as from personality clashes.
- Functional conflict: stimulates people to greater work efforts, cooperation and creativity
- Dysfunctional conflict: interferes with other more task-relevant activities
5 styles of conflict management
- Avoidance: being uncooperative and unassertive, withdrawing from the situtation or staying neutral (lose-lose)
- Accommodating:being cooperative but unassertive. Letting wishes of others rule. Overlooking differences to maintain harmony (lose-lose)
- Competition: Uncooperative but assertive. authoritative command, uses force, superior skills or domination to win a conflict (Win-lose)
- Compromise: Moderately cooperative and assertive. Occurs when each party to the conflict gives up something of value to the other (win-lose)
- Collaboration: Both cooperative and assertive. Problem solving. Involves working through conflict differences and solving problems so everyone wins (win-win)
negotiation and the 2 types
Negotiation: the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.
Distributive negotiation: focuses on ‘win–lose’ claims made by each party for certain preferred outcomes.
Principled/integrative negotiation: uses a ‘win–win’ orientation to reach solutions acceptable to each party.
- The bargaining zone
- The zone between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other’s maximum reservation point. Where there is a positive bargaining zone, there can be real negotiation.
A key task for any negotiator is to work out the other person’s reservation point. Until this is known, it is difficult to proceed.
AA: What is the difference between the halo effect and selective perception?
Halo effect: occurs when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person situation. Causes same problem as stereotypes: individual differences become obscured
Selective perception: The tendency to single out aspects of a situation or person that reinforce or appear consistent with one's existing beliefs, values or needs. the tendency to define problems from your own point of view
Difference: Halo affect judges a person based on one of their attributes whereas selective perception judges a situation or person based from their own point of view
How do tendencies towards assertiveness and cooperativeness in conflict management result in win-lose, lose-lose and win-win outcomes?
- There are different approaches to conflict that result in different outcomes.
- No assertiveness or cooperation (avoidance) leads to a lose-lose situation
- Being cooperative but unassertive (accommodating) leads to a lose-lose situation
- Being assertive but not cooperative (competing) leads to a win-lose situation
- Being moderately assertive and cooperative (compromising) leads to each party winning a bit, and losing a bit
- Being both cooperative and assertive (collaboration) leads to a win-win conflictby working through differences, finding and solving problems
What is the difference between substance and relationship goals in negotiation?
Substance goals are concerned with the outcome however relationship goals are concerned with the process (the way people work together while negotiating and how they will be able to work together again in the future)