Globalisation and Development
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- does globalisation increase development?
- or destroy local culture?
- does it even exist or is it a social construction in time and place
- different versions of modernity
- - a liberating civilisation emanating from the West
- or a threat to cultural diversity, restricting freedom
Pepsi-Co ethnography outline
- Gewertz and Errington, Papua New Guinea
- examines local Chambri understandings of modernity in reference to consumer capitalism
- Gewertz and Errington
- TV programme emphasising the "traditional" vs "modern"
- traditional dress, popular PNG musicians
- advertising pepsi cola
- choice of the new generation
Impact of Pepsi-Co
- bridge division between cultures (from tribal to cosmopolitan)
- divisions between traditional and modern
- despite straying from tradition, cultural distinctions and identities still had importance
- instead shaped new subjectivities: idea of personal choice and autonomy
Sahlins: the indigenisation of modernity
- new forms of cultural production constantly innovating
- challenges idea of cultural destruction
- culture is fluid, constantly adapting
- localisation results in greater diversity in response to threat
- stronger sense of local identity
McDonalds in Beijing
- Yan: the localisation of Americana
- as a symbol of America
- represents modernisation
- Growth of McD to be understood in changes of Chinese culture
- new tendency to absorb cultural influence and transform into local insitutions
difference of Chinese McD
- food presented as "scientifically designed"
- cleanliness promoted
- assosiated success of transnat food corporations with atmosphere of equality/democracy
conclusion of Beijing McDonalds
- not homogenic
- represents radically different values
- becomes a localised, Chinese version of Americana
- presented itself as a Chinese company
- process of international integration of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture
- global interconnectedness
- increasing economic links
- greater political and cultural integration
- OR cultural homogeneity? "Westernisation"
BUT Cooper questions:
- whether the world is more connected than ever before
- comes in waves
- historical periods of connectedness existed already
- eg trade prior WW1, global labour migration peaking 1815
- NOW states close their borders
- capital economic links show danger in interconnectedness: financial crisis
are we actually more modern than before?
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