Digestion

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Author:
BodeS
ID:
302446
Filename:
Digestion
Updated:
2015-05-13 14:45:07
Tags:
Anatomy
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Description:
organs, blood flow, special feature
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    • A. Celiac trunk
    • B. Hepatic artery
    • C. Gastric artery
    • D. Splenic artery
    • E. Superior mesenteric artery
    • F. Inferior mesenteric artery
  1. E. esophagus
    • A. splenic vein
    • D. hepatic portal vein
    • E. common bile duct
    • J. inferior mesenteric vein
  2. C. hepatic portal vein
    • C. Lesser Curvature
    • of stomach 
    • connects to lesser Omentum
    • D. Pyloris
    • sphincter
    • B. Greater Curvature
    • connects to Greater Omentum
    • Stomach
    • A. Fundus
    • C. Body
    • D. Pyloris
    • E. Rugae 
    • F. Greater Curvature
    • G. Lesser Curvature
  3. pyloris
    ID
    histology
    • ID: pyloric sphincter
    • Histology: smooth muscle
    • F. stomach
    • rugae
  4. Rugae
    ID
    fxn

    Histology
    • ID: folds of muscle
    • fxn: allow for stretch
    • histology: smooth muscle
  5. stomach
    chemistry
    histology
    fxn
    • chemistry: pH 2
    • histology: simple columnar epithelium
    • w/ goblet cells-rugae
    • 3 layers of smooth muscle-lining
    • fxn: kill bacteria 
    • denature protein
    • make pepsin
    • digest protein
    • absorb glucose, alcohol, aspirin
  6. stomach pH
    fxn
    • ID: ph 2
    • fxn: kill bacteria
    • denature protein
    • make pepsin
  7. pepsin
    digest protein
  8. stomach 
    goblet cells
    mucus protect the stomach from HCl
  9. mouth
    mastication
  10. mastication
    • chew food
    • break into smaller pieces
    • add saliva
  11. saliva
    • enzyme: amylase
    • start breakdown of carbohydrate
  12. Epiglottis
    covers larynx
    • ID:esophagus
    • fxn: food goes down
    • Xport to stomach
    • location: connects mouth to stomach
  13. Hepatic Portal System
    all veins from digestive system and the spleen go to liver
  14. Liver 
    4 fxn
    • 1. detoxify blood from spleen
    • 2. metabolize nutrients 
    • 3. detoxify non-nutrients
    • 4. make bile 
  15. Liver 
    fxn #1
    • detoxify blood from spleen:
    • heme-spleen-bilirubin
    • bilirubin-liver-biliverden
    • biliverden-bile ducts
    • secreted into body
  16. Liver 
    fxn #2
    • metabolize nutrients:
    • fructose into glucose
    • convert amino acids
    • store/utilize vitamins
  17. Liver 
    fxn #3
    • detoxify non-nutrients:
    • medications
  18. Liver 
    fxn #4
    • make bile:
    • bile salts, cholesterol, waste products
  19. left colic flexure
    or 
    splenic colic flexure
    • start: Inferior Mesenteric Artery/Vein 
    • end: Superior Mesenteric Artery/Vein 
    • plus
    • end: CNX Vagus parasympathetic Nerve 
    • start: sacral parasympathetic nerves
  20. portal systems
    involve 2 capillary beds
  21. superior mesenteric artery/vein
    • all of small intestine 
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
  22. blood flow
    heart-ascending colon-heart
    • left ventricle- aorta- abdominal aorta-
    • superior mesenteric artery-

    • muscular arteries- arteriole&metarteriole-
    • 1st capillary- venule- small vein-

    superior mesenteric vein- Hepatic Portal Vein-

    small veins- venules- 2nd capillary- venules- small veins-

    Hepatic Vein- Inferior Vena Cava- Rt Atrium
  23. sigmoid colon
    • s shape 
    • end of descending colon
    • A. Greater Omentum
    • B. Mesentery 
    • C. Parietal Peritoneum
    • D. Visceral Peritoneum
    • E. Lesser Omentum
  24. Mesentary
    • CT core
    • covered by peritoneum
    • connects the organs
    • to the posterior body wall
    • A. Greater Omentum
    • connects to Greater Curvature
    • of stomach and
    • Transverse Colon
  25. Omentum
    • CT core
    • covered by peritoneum
    • connects one organ to another
    • ex/ lesser omentum connects
    • lesser curvature of stomach 
    • to liver
  26. Adventitia
    • CT surroundings
    • covers organs that are retroperitoneal or subperitoneal
    • posterior to peritoneum
  27. visceral peritoneum
    or 
    serosa
    simple squamous epithelium
  28. peritoneum
    peritoneal cavity
  29. peritoneal cavity
    • visceral peritoneum or serosa
    • peritoneal fluid
    • parietal layer
  30. retroperitoneal 
    posterior to peritoneum
  31. retroperitoneal organs
    • spleen
    • pancreas
    • kidney
    • duodenum
    • ureters
  32. Villus
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • location: small intestine
    • ID: fold of mucosa
    • fxn: absorb food nutrients into body
    • increase surface area
  33. Fold of Mucosa
    structure
    location
    • structure:
    • 1. simple columnar
    • w/ goblet cells and villi
    • 2. lamina propria
    • 3. muscularis interna
    • 4. capillary
    • 5. lacteal
    • location: superficial to submucosa
  34. lamina propria
    CT
  35. muscularis mucosa
    smooth muscle
  36. capillary
    ID
    fxn
    • ID: blood vessel
    • fxn: simple diffusion
    • water-soluble nutrients
    • gases
  37. lacteal
    ID
    Fxn
    • ID: lymph vessel
    • fxn: fat absorption
  38. submucosa
    structure
    location
    • location: deep to mucosa
    • structure: CT layer of
    • arteries
    • veins
    • lymph vessels
  39. muscularis externa
    structure
    location
    • structure: inner circular layer
    • CNX Vagus parasympathetic Nerve
    • outer longitudinal layer
    • serosa
    • location: deep to submucosa
  40. inner circular layer of
    muscularis externa
    fxn: movement of segmentation
  41. outer layer of
    muscularis externa
    • fxn: movement
    • of peristalsis
    • small intestine
    • villus
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa
    • serosa
    • A. mucosa
    • A1. simple columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells and microvilli
    • A2. lamina propria (CT)
    • A3. muscularis interna
    • or muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle)
    • B. submucosa (CT)
    • C. muscularis externa 
    • C1. inner circular layer 
    • C2. outer longitudinal
    • D. serosa 
    • or
    • adventitia 
    • B. jejunum
    • C. ileum
  42. small intestine
    pH
    structure
    fxn
    • pH: 8 
    • HCO3-
    • bicarbonate
    • structure: duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
    • fxn: digestion 
    • absorption
  43. small intestine
    fxn: digestion
    everything
  44. small intestine 
    fxn: absorption
    90-95% of all nutrients and H20
    • G. Duodenum
    • U. Pancreas
    • transverse colon
    • jejunum
  45. ileum
    • cecum
    • appendix
    • ascending colon 
    • hepatic colic flexure
    • pancreas
    • transverse colon
    • splenic colic flexure
    • descending colon 
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • anal canal
    • rectum
    • A. teniae coli
    • B. haustra
  46. teniae coli
    ID
    fxn 
    location
    • ID: band of longitudinal smooth muscle
    • fxn: gather large intestine into haustra
    • location: medial, anterior, and posterior segments on large intestines
  47. haustra 
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: saculations
    • fxn: segmentation and peristalsis movement
  48. epiploic tab of fat
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: fat
    • fxn: insulation
    • location: attached to teniae coli
  49. appendix
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: lymph vessel
    • fxn: vestigial attachment
    • location: attached to cecum
  50. ileocecal valve
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: sphincter
    • fxn: one-way movement
    • location: connection between ileum and cecum
    • ID: simple columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells and microvilli
    • fxn: absorption
    • secretion
    • specific transport
    • location: stomach (no microvilli)
    • small intestine
  51. microvilli
    vs.
    villi
    • microvilli: hair-like projection attached to apical edge of simple columnar epithelium
    • villi: finger-like or leaf-like projections of the mucosa in small intestine
  52. Bile
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: non-protein
    • exocrine
    • stems from biliverden
    • fxn: emulsifies fat in duodenum
    • mechanical digestion
    • precursor to chemical digestion
    • location: made in liver
    • travel in bile ducts
    • works in duodenum
  53. Gall Bladder
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: exocrine gland
    • fxn: stores bile
    • location: adjacent to liver
  54. Pancreas
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine & exocrine gland
    • fxn: EXOCRINE- make enzymes for digestion
    • make bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    • make duct cells
    • ENDOCRINE- make hormones for blood
    • location: anterior to inferior mesenteric vein/artery
    • inferior to stomach
    • left to liver
  55. ABSORPTION 
    digestive system
    the transport of nutrients into body
  56. DIGESTION
    digestive system
    the enzymatic breakdown of food into nutrient molecules
  57. pancreatic duct
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: exocrine
    • fxn: transports ducts cells into duodenum
    • location: pancreas
  58. Duct Cells
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: acinar cells
    • bicarbonate
    • enzymes
    • fxn: digestion
    • location: pancreas
  59. Islets of Langerhans
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine
    • fxn: make hormones
    • ex/
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
    • location: pancreas
  60. insulin
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine hormone
    • fxn: lowers blood sugar after eating
    • location: pancreas
    • islets of Langerhans
    • blood
  61. glucagon
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine hormone
    • fxn: increases blood sugar when not eating
    • location: pancreas
    • islets of Langerhans
    • blood
    • F. spleen
    • H. pancreas
  62. significance of splenic colic flexure? what 3 things happen here?
    • 1) CNX Vagus Parasympathetic Nerve ends, sacral parasympathetic nerves begin
    • 2) superior mesenteric artery ends, inferior mesenteric artery begins
    • 3) superior mesenteric veins ends, inferior mesenteric vein begins
  63. what 3 veins feed into the hepatic portal vein? what organs does each come from? why is it important that each go to the liver?
    • 1) splenic vein: stomach, spleen
    • 2) inferior mesenteric vein: descending colon, sigmoid colon
    • 3) superior mesenteric vein: small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon 

    • fxn: detoxify blood & non-nutrients 
    • metabolize nutrients
  64. omentum vs mesentary
    • organ to organ
    • vs
    • organ to wall
  65. peritoneal vs. retroperitoneal 
    • peritoneal: peritoneal cavity
    • omentum 
    • mesentery
    • visceral peritoneal
    • parietal layer 
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • retroperitoneal: posterior to peritoneum
    • connects to wall 
    • adventitia

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