Digestion

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  1. Image Upload
    • A. Celiac trunk
    • B. Hepatic artery
    • C. Gastric artery
    • D. Splenic artery
    • E. Superior mesenteric artery
    • F. Inferior mesenteric artery
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    E. esophagus
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    • A. splenic vein
    • D. hepatic portal vein
    • E. common bile duct
    • J. inferior mesenteric vein
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    C. hepatic portal vein
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    • C. Lesser Curvature
    • of stomach 
    • connects to lesser Omentum
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    • D. Pyloris
    • sphincter
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    • B. Greater Curvature
    • connects to Greater Omentum
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    • Stomach
    • A. Fundus
    • C. Body
    • D. Pyloris
    • E. Rugae 
    • F. Greater Curvature
    • G. Lesser Curvature
  9. pyloris
    ID
    histology
    • ID: pyloric sphincter
    • Histology: smooth muscle
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    • F. stomach
    • rugae
  11. Rugae
    ID
    fxn

    Histology
    • ID: folds of muscle
    • fxn: allow for stretch
    • histology: smooth muscle
  12. stomach
    chemistry
    histology
    fxn
    • chemistry: pH 2
    • histology: simple columnar epithelium
    • w/ goblet cells-rugae
    • 3 layers of smooth muscle-lining
    • fxn: kill bacteria 
    • denature protein
    • make pepsin
    • digest protein
    • absorb glucose, alcohol, aspirin
  13. stomach pH
    fxn
    • ID: ph 2
    • fxn: kill bacteria
    • denature protein
    • make pepsin
  14. pepsin
    digest protein
  15. stomach 
    goblet cells
    mucus protect the stomach from HCl
  16. mouth
    mastication
  17. mastication
    • chew food
    • break into smaller pieces
    • add saliva
  18. saliva
    • enzyme: amylase
    • start breakdown of carbohydrate
  19. Epiglottis
    covers larynx
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    • ID:esophagus
    • fxn: food goes down
    • Xport to stomach
    • location: connects mouth to stomach
  21. Hepatic Portal System
    all veins from digestive system and the spleen go to liver
  22. Liver 
    4 fxn
    • 1. detoxify blood from spleen
    • 2. metabolize nutrients 
    • 3. detoxify non-nutrients
    • 4. make bile 
  23. Liver 
    fxn #1
    • detoxify blood from spleen:
    • heme-spleen-bilirubin
    • bilirubin-liver-biliverden
    • biliverden-bile ducts
    • secreted into body
  24. Liver 
    fxn #2
    • metabolize nutrients:
    • fructose into glucose
    • convert amino acids
    • store/utilize vitamins
  25. Liver 
    fxn #3
    • detoxify non-nutrients:
    • medications
  26. Liver 
    fxn #4
    • make bile:
    • bile salts, cholesterol, waste products
  27. left colic flexure
    or 
    splenic colic flexure
    • start: Inferior Mesenteric Artery/Vein 
    • end: Superior Mesenteric Artery/Vein 
    • plus
    • end: CNX Vagus parasympathetic Nerve 
    • start: sacral parasympathetic nerves
  28. portal systems
    involve 2 capillary beds
  29. superior mesenteric artery/vein
    • all of small intestine 
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
  30. blood flow
    heart-ascending colon-heart
    • left ventricle- aorta- abdominal aorta-
    • superior mesenteric artery-

    • muscular arteries- arteriole&metarteriole-
    • 1st capillary- venule- small vein-

    superior mesenteric vein- Hepatic Portal Vein-

    small veins- venules- 2nd capillary- venules- small veins-

    Hepatic Vein- Inferior Vena Cava- Rt Atrium
  31. sigmoid colon
    • s shape 
    • end of descending colon
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  33. Image Upload
    • A. Greater Omentum
    • B. Mesentery 
    • C. Parietal Peritoneum
    • D. Visceral Peritoneum
    • E. Lesser Omentum
  34. Mesentary
    • CT core
    • covered by peritoneum
    • connects the organs
    • to the posterior body wall
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    • A. Greater Omentum
    • connects to Greater Curvature
    • of stomach and
    • Transverse Colon
  36. Omentum
    • CT core
    • covered by peritoneum
    • connects one organ to another
    • ex/ lesser omentum connects
    • lesser curvature of stomach 
    • to liver
  37. Adventitia
    • CT surroundings
    • covers organs that are retroperitoneal or subperitoneal
    • posterior to peritoneum
  38. visceral peritoneum
    or 
    serosa
    simple squamous epithelium
  39. peritoneum
    peritoneal cavity
  40. peritoneal cavity
    • visceral peritoneum or serosa
    • peritoneal fluid
    • parietal layer
  41. retroperitoneal 
    posterior to peritoneum
  42. retroperitoneal organs
    • spleen
    • pancreas
    • kidney
    • duodenum
    • ureters
  43. Villus
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • location: small intestine
    • ID: fold of mucosa
    • fxn: absorb food nutrients into body
    • increase surface area
  44. Fold of Mucosa
    structure
    location
    • structure:
    • 1. simple columnar
    • w/ goblet cells and villi
    • 2. lamina propria
    • 3. muscularis interna
    • 4. capillary
    • 5. lacteal
    • location: superficial to submucosa
  45. lamina propria
    CT
  46. muscularis mucosa
    smooth muscle
  47. capillary
    ID
    fxn
    • ID: blood vessel
    • fxn: simple diffusion
    • water-soluble nutrients
    • gases
  48. lacteal
    ID
    Fxn
    • ID: lymph vessel
    • fxn: fat absorption
  49. submucosa
    structure
    location
    • location: deep to mucosa
    • structure: CT layer of
    • arteries
    • veins
    • lymph vessels
  50. muscularis externa
    structure
    location
    • structure: inner circular layer
    • CNX Vagus parasympathetic Nerve
    • outer longitudinal layer
    • serosa
    • location: deep to submucosa
  51. inner circular layer of
    muscularis externa
    fxn: movement of segmentation
  52. outer layer of
    muscularis externa
    • fxn: movement
    • of peristalsis
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    • small intestine
    • villus
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa
    • serosa
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    • A. mucosa
    • A1. simple columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells and microvilli
    • A2. lamina propria (CT)
    • A3. muscularis interna
    • or muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle)
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    • B. submucosa (CT)
    • C. muscularis externa 
    • C1. inner circular layer 
    • C2. outer longitudinal
    • D. serosa 
    • or
    • adventitia 
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    • B. jejunum
    • C. ileum
  57. small intestine
    pH
    structure
    fxn
    • pH: 8 
    • HCO3-
    • bicarbonate
    • structure: duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
    • fxn: digestion 
    • absorption
  58. small intestine
    fxn: digestion
    everything
  59. small intestine 
    fxn: absorption
    90-95% of all nutrients and H20
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    • G. Duodenum
    • U. Pancreas
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    • transverse colon
    • jejunum
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    ileum
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    • cecum
    • appendix
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    • ascending colon 
    • hepatic colic flexure
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    • pancreas
    • transverse colon
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    • splenic colic flexure
    • descending colon 
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    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
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    • anal canal
    • rectum
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    • A. teniae coli
    • B. haustra
  70. teniae coli
    ID
    fxn 
    location
    • ID: band of longitudinal smooth muscle
    • fxn: gather large intestine into haustra
    • location: medial, anterior, and posterior segments on large intestines
  71. haustra 
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: saculations
    • fxn: segmentation and peristalsis movement
  72. epiploic tab of fat
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: fat
    • fxn: insulation
    • location: attached to teniae coli
  73. appendix
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: lymph vessel
    • fxn: vestigial attachment
    • location: attached to cecum
  74. ileocecal valve
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: sphincter
    • fxn: one-way movement
    • location: connection between ileum and cecum
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    • ID: simple columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells and microvilli
    • fxn: absorption
    • secretion
    • specific transport
    • location: stomach (no microvilli)
    • small intestine
  76. microvilli
    vs.
    villi
    • microvilli: hair-like projection attached to apical edge of simple columnar epithelium
    • villi: finger-like or leaf-like projections of the mucosa in small intestine
  77. Bile
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: non-protein
    • exocrine
    • stems from biliverden
    • fxn: emulsifies fat in duodenum
    • mechanical digestion
    • precursor to chemical digestion
    • location: made in liver
    • travel in bile ducts
    • works in duodenum
  78. Gall Bladder
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: exocrine gland
    • fxn: stores bile
    • location: adjacent to liver
  79. Pancreas
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine & exocrine gland
    • fxn: EXOCRINE- make enzymes for digestion
    • make bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    • make duct cells
    • ENDOCRINE- make hormones for blood
    • location: anterior to inferior mesenteric vein/artery
    • inferior to stomach
    • left to liver
  80. ABSORPTION 
    digestive system
    the transport of nutrients into body
  81. DIGESTION
    digestive system
    the enzymatic breakdown of food into nutrient molecules
  82. pancreatic duct
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: exocrine
    • fxn: transports ducts cells into duodenum
    • location: pancreas
  83. Duct Cells
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: acinar cells
    • bicarbonate
    • enzymes
    • fxn: digestion
    • location: pancreas
  84. Islets of Langerhans
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine
    • fxn: make hormones
    • ex/
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
    • location: pancreas
  85. insulin
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine hormone
    • fxn: lowers blood sugar after eating
    • location: pancreas
    • islets of Langerhans
    • blood
  86. glucagon
    ID
    fxn
    location
    • ID: endocrine hormone
    • fxn: increases blood sugar when not eating
    • location: pancreas
    • islets of Langerhans
    • blood
  87. Image Upload
    • F. spleen
    • H. pancreas
  88. significance of splenic colic flexure? what 3 things happen here?
    • 1) CNX Vagus Parasympathetic Nerve ends, sacral parasympathetic nerves begin
    • 2) superior mesenteric artery ends, inferior mesenteric artery begins
    • 3) superior mesenteric veins ends, inferior mesenteric vein begins
  89. what 3 veins feed into the hepatic portal vein? what organs does each come from? why is it important that each go to the liver?
    • 1) splenic vein: stomach, spleen
    • 2) inferior mesenteric vein: descending colon, sigmoid colon
    • 3) superior mesenteric vein: small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon 

    • fxn: detoxify blood & non-nutrients 
    • metabolize nutrients
  90. omentum vs mesentary
    • organ to organ
    • vs
    • organ to wall
  91. peritoneal vs. retroperitoneal 
    • peritoneal: peritoneal cavity
    • omentum 
    • mesentery
    • visceral peritoneal
    • parietal layer 
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • retroperitoneal: posterior to peritoneum
    • connects to wall 
    • adventitia
Author:
BodeS
ID:
302446
Card Set:
Digestion
Updated:
2015-05-13 18:45:07
Tags:
Anatomy
Folders:

Description:
organs, blood flow, special feature
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