Lecture 10: Microbial Metabolism (Quiz 5)

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Lecture 10: Microbial Metabolism (Quiz 5)
2015-05-11 18:40:34
krebs cycle, fermentation, electron transport chain, etc.
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  1. Electron Transport Chain
    • NADH and FADH2 are used to transport electrons in the form of Hydrogen ions (they are byproducts of catabolic processes).
    • FADH2: 4 protons per 2 ATP
    • NADH: 6 protons per 3 ATP
  2. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Aerobic: WITH oxygen, more energy than aneraobic, breakdown of glucose into ATP which then releases CO2.
    • Anerobic: WITHOUT oxygen, ATP (pyruvate) is catalyzed by other reactions.
    • This is Oxidative Phosphorylation: doesn't generate ATP.
  3. Chemiosmosis
    • Protons created across membrane.
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation: Come back in through ATP synthesis.
    • Every 2 protons (H) = 1 ATP
  4. Total number of things produced through Cellular Respiration?
    Total ATP yield: 38 in prokaryotes, 36 eukoaryotes
  5. Fermentation
    • Only glycolysis – only 2 ATP, NADH are recycled.
    • Acids/Alcohols/Gases created.
    • There are Alcohol, Homolactic, or Heterolcatic.
  6. Alcohol Fermenter
    • Saccharomyces
    • Beer, wine, ethanol
  7. Homolactic Fermenter
    • Lactic Acid Fermenter
    • Only creates lactic acid
    • Cheese, yogurt, etc.
  8. Heterolcatic Fermenter
    • Lactic Acid Fermenter
    • Creates lactic acid AND Ethanol
  9. ATP's produced in Aerobic, Anerobic, and Fermentation?
    • Aerobic: 36 Euk, 38 Prok
    • Anaerobic: Variable (fewer than 38 but more than 2)
    • Fermenter: 2 produced
  10. Fat Catabolism
    • How fats are broken down.
    • Glycerol to Glycolysis, fatty acids through Beta Oxidation.
    • The Coenzyme A is combined with 2 carbons to form Acetyl-CoA.
  11. Protein Catabolism
    • The breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds (macromolecules), and this process begins in the stomach.
    • Protein Hydrolysis, Deamination, Glycolysis, and Krebs Cycle.
    • Deamination: The removal of an amine group.
  12. Light Dependent Photosynthesis
    • MUST have light.
    • Converts ADP + P=ATP
    • Also NADP to NADPH
    • Photophosphorylation is also apart of this which consists of Cyclic and Noncyclic.
    • UV energy hits molecule and excites electrons.
    • Produces protons which are being pumped out.
  13. Cyclic Phosphorylation
    • Part of the Light Dependent Photosynthesis.
    • Only ATP is produced.
    • Oxygen is not produced.
    • Water splitting is absent.
  14. Noncyclic Phosphorylation
    • Part of Light Dependent Photosynthesis.
    • ATP and NADPH are produced.
    • Oxygen is produced as a by-product.
    • Water splitting is present.
  15. Light Independent Photosynthesis
    • DOES NOT need light to react.
    • ATP to reduce CO2 to sugar.
    • Calvin Benson Cycle
  16. Calvin Benson Cycle
    • Light Independent Photosynthesis
    • Takes in CO2 and produces sugar at the end (new cellular material).
    • Goes around 3 times (6 for glucose).
    • Requires 18 molecules for ATP (2 per 1 glucose).
  17. Photoheterotroph
    • Gaining electrons from light.
    • Must eat other things.
  18. Chemoheterotroph
    • Gets its energy from chemicals.
    • Must eat something else to create CO2.
  19. Photoautotroph
    • Gaining electron energy from light.
    • It self-feeds from light.
  20. Chemoautotroph
    • Gets its energy from chemicals.
    • It self feeds from CO2.
  21. Anabolism
    • A metabolic reaction that builds or assembles more complex molecules from simpler ones.
    • Through this, carbs, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides are created.
  22. Polysaccharides
    Substrates from glycolysis, uses UTP and ATP
  23. Lipids
    Glycerol from glycolysis, Fatty Acids from Acetyl-CoA
  24. Amino Acids
    • Amination: Putting an amino acid back in, it's coming from somewhere different.
    • Transamination: Using one amino acid to transfer to another amino acid.
  25. Nucleotides
    From amino acids (purines and pyrimidines) and Pentose sugars
  26. Microbial Growth
    • The growth is by numbers, not by size.
    • More specifics on cell division then just divide down the middle.
  27. Binary Fission and Budding
    • BF: Bacillus splitting repeatedly.
    • Budding: When the mother cell buds off a daughter cell.