Head and Neck RCA 4

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  1. Describe ongings in the pterygopalatine fossa with Maxillary nerve (V2) branches
    • Within the pterygopalatine fossa gives off two branches which suspend the parasympathetic pterygopalatine ganglion
    • - Sensory fibres of the maxillary nerve pass through the ganglion without synapsing, to supply nose, palate, nasopharynx
  2. Label the nerves and give functions
    • Greater palatine nerve and Lesser palatine nerve: Pass inferiorly from the pterygopalatine ganglion
    • - Descends through the palatine canal
    • - Enter palate through greater & lesser palatine foramina
    • - Function: supply sensory to hard & soft palate
    • Nasopalatine nerve: Runs medially and enters the nasal cavity
    • - runs on the nasal septum & through a foramen to anterior part of the hard palate
    • Nasal nerve: Enter the nasal cavity to supply parts of the lateral wall and septum
    • Pharyngeal nerves: Passes posteriorly
    • - Supply the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx
    • Posterior superior alveolar nerves: Arise from the maxillary nerve within the pterygopalatine fossa
    • - Descend to supply upper posterior teeth.
    • Anterior superior alveolar nerves: Arises from the infraorbital nerve and supplies the upper anterior teeth
    • #
    • Pterygopalatine ganglion
  3. Maxillary nerve (V2) branches; name the nerves indicated
    • Greater palatine nerve and Lesser palatine nerve: Pass inferiorly from the pterygopalatine ganglion
    • - Descends through the palatine canal
    • - Enter palate through greater & lesser palatine foramina
    • - Function: supply sensory to hard & soft palate
    • Nasopalatine nerve: Runs medially and enters the nasal cavity
    • - runs on the nasal septum & through a foramen to anterior part of the hard palate
    • Nasal nerve: Enter the nasal cavity to supply parts of the lateral wall and septum
    • Pharyngeal nerves: Passes posteriorly
    • - Supply the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx
    • Pterygopalatine ganglion
  4. Maxillary nerve (V2) branches; name the nerves indicated
    • Posterior superior alveolar nerves: Arise from the maxillary nerve within the pterygopalatine fossa
    • - Descend to supply upper posterior teeth.
    • Anterior superior alveolar nerves: Arises from the infraorbital nerve and supplies the upper anterior teeth
    • #
    • Pterygopalatine ganglion
  5. This is an image with the medial nasal septum turned up.
    Maxillary nerve (V2) branches; name the nerves indicated
    • Greater palatine nerve and Lesser palatine nerve: Pass inferiorly from the pterygopalatine ganglion
    • - Descends through the palatine canal
    • - Enter palate through greater & lesser palatine foramina
    • - Function: supply sensory to hard & soft palate
    • Nasopalatine nerve: Runs medially and enters the nasal cavity
    • - runs on the nasal septum & through a foramen to anterior part of the hard palate
    • Nasal nerve: Enter the nasal cavity to supply parts of the lateral wall and septum
    • Pterygopalatine ganglion
  6. Label:
    • Nasal bone
    • Lacrimal bone
    • Mandible
    • Zygomatic bone
    • Vomer
    • Maxilla
    • Parietal Bone
    • Occipital Bone
    • Sphenoid
    • Ethmoid
    • Temporal Bone
    • Frontal Bone
    • Sagittal suture
    • Occipital Bone
    • Temporal bone
    • Right + left parietal bone
    • Squamous suture
    • Mandible
    • Occipital bone
    • Lambdoid suture
    • Sagittal suture
    • Right + left parietal bone
    • Coronal suture
    • Frontal bone
    • Nasal bones
    • Sphenoid
    • Frontal sinus
    • Sphenoidal sinus
    • Nasal bone
    • Ethmoid
    • Vomer
    • Palatine bone
    • Maxilla
    • Mandible
  7. Describe the functions and gross anatomical features of the medial wall of the nasal cavities
    • The two nasal cavities are separated by a median partition, the *nasal septum* that forms the medial wall of each nasal cavity. The nasal septum comprises a skeleton of;
    • – bone: vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid
    • Vomer
    • perpendicular plate of ethmoid
    • – and cartilage together with a covering of mucosa
    • Septal cartilage
    • #
    • Nasal crests of the;
    • - maxilla and
    • - palatine bones
  8. Describe the functions and gross anatomical features of the lateral wall of the nasal cavities
    • The lateral wall of each nasal cavity similarly comprises a skeleton of hard tissue with (2) components
    • – bone : nasal conchae or turbinate (= scroll-like) bones, frontal process of maxilla, perpendicular plate of palatine bone, nasal bone, lacrimal bone
    • Frontal process
    • Lacrimal bone
    • Nasal bone
    • (Perpendicular plate of) Palatine bone
    • Ethmoid bone; with superior and middle concha and
    • - inferior concha; is a separate bone
    • Nasal meatuses: air passages below the respective conchae; i.e. superior, middle and inferior
    • – and cartilage together with a covering of mucosa
    • Cartilage
  9. Describe the functions and gross anatomical features of the roof (3) and floor (2) of the nasal cavities
    • Frontal bone
    • Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
    • Sphenoid
    • Horizontal plate of the palatine bone
    • Palatine process of the maxillae bone
  10. Describe the functions and gross anatomical features of the floor (only) of the nasal cavities
    • Palatine process of the maxillae bone
    • Hard palate
    • Horizontal plate of the palatine bone
    • Soft palate
  11. What is the orbit? What are the 5 anatomical parts of the orbit? What bones form them?
    • The orbit: is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. It has 4 walls and an apex;
    • Roof: mainly orbital plate of frontal bone, near the apex lesser wing of sphenoid
    • Medial wall: mainly ethmoid with contributions from frontal bone, lacrimal, and sphenoid.
    • Floor: mainly by maxilla, partly by zygomatic bone. Floor is partly separated from lateral wall by the inferior orbital fissure.
    • Lateral wall: zygomatic bone and greater wing of sphenoid.
    • - Partly separated from roof by superior orbital fissure (communicates with middle cranial fossa)
    • Apex: is at optic canal, medial to superior orbital fissure
  12. Give the technical name for eyelids
    Describe the surrounding/lacrimal apparatus

    • Eye lids (palpebrae) are covered externally by thin skin, and internally by conjunctiva, which is reflected onto the eyeball.
    • #
    • Tarsal plates: are dense fibrous tissue bands which strengthens the eyelids.
    • - Tarsal glands are embedded in the plates, secretion lubricates and prevents eyelids sticking together.
    • Medial and lateral palpebral ligaments: connect the eyelids to their respective margins of the orbit.
    • Lacrimal gland: lies in a fossa in lateral part of the roof of orbit.
    • - It drains by about dozen small ducts on to the conjunctiva
    • Lacrimal sac: is lodged within the lacrimal groove.
    • - It receives lacrimal canaliculi and is continuous below with the nasolacrimal duct, which drains into the inferior meatus of the nose.
  13. Contents of the orbit: Muscles
    Name the muscles, their origin, insertion, innervation and actions
    • Levator palpebrae superioris muscle:
    • - Origin - roof of orbit close to apex
    • - Insertion - tarsal plate and skin of upper eyelid
    • - Innervation - oculomotor nerve (III)
    • - Action - elevates upper eyelid
    • #RECTUS MUSCLES (4) ; (attachments)
    • Superior rectus: common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit to superior surface of eyeball
    • - Action: elevates the eyeball
    • Inferior rectus: common tendinous ring to inferior surface of eyeball
    • - Action; depresses the eye ball
    • Medial rectus: common tendinous ring to medial surface of eyeball
    • - action - adducts the eyeball
    • - Innervation: above 3 by oculomotor nerve (III)
    • Lateral rectus: common tendinous ring to lateral surface of eyeball
    • - Action - abducts the eyeball
    • - Innervation: abducent nerve (VI)
    • Superior oblique muscle:
    • - Origin - body of sphenoid
    • - Insertion - tendon passes through a fibrous ring (trochlea) at superomedial angle of orbital wall, changes direction and inserts into sclera deep to superior rectus muscle
    • - Innervation - trochlear nerve (IV)
    • - Action - abducts and depresses
    • Inferior oblique muscle:
    • - Origin - anterior part of floor of orbit
    • - Insertion - sclera deep to lateral rectus muscle
    • - Innervation - oculomotor nerve (III)
    • - Action - abducts and elevates
  14. Contents of the orbit: Nerves 
    • Nasocilliary nerve: passes forwards within the cone of muscles, and gives off the following branches;
    • Long ciliary nerves: carry sensory fibers to cornea
    • - postganglionic sympathetic fibres from superior cervical ganglion to the dilator pupillae muscles
    • Posterior and anterior ethmoidal nerves: enter the respective foramina in the medial wall of the orbit
    • - Anterior ethmodal n. enters the face via the nose as the external nasal nerve
    • Ciliary ganglion: situated behind the eyeball
    • - is a relay station for parasympathetic fibres brought along the oculomotor nerve
    • Short ciliary nerves: carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibres to the sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles.
  15. Contents of the orbit: Arteries
    • Ophthalmic artery: branches off the internal carotid artery as it emerges from the cavernous sinus
    • - accompanies the optic nerve into the orbit through the optic canal
    • - Branches are similar to those of the nasociliary nerve
    • Central artery of the retina: runs to the retina within the optic nerve
  16. Contents of the orbit: Veins
    Name the CYAN vein, its tributaries, and its path
    • Ophthalmic veins: Both branches of ophthalmic veins pass through the superior orbital fissure and
    • - enter the Cavernous sinus
    • #
    • Facial vein communicates with;
    • - the superior ophthalmic vein at the medial cathus
  17. What are the 3 parts of the external ear?
    • Auricle: Sensory supply - V3 (auriculotemporal nerve)
    • External auditory meatus: S-shaped passage which extends to the tympanic membrane
    • - Lateral third cartilaginous, medial two-thirds bony (petrous temporal).
    • - Cereuminous and sebaceous glands produce cerumen (ear wax).
    • Tympanic membrane: slopes away at lower edge, covered with skin externally and mucous membrane internally.
  18. What are the parts of the middle ear?
    Give the bones and muscles + functions

    • The tympanic cavity is directly internal to membrane.
    • Contains auditory ossicles linking tympanic membrane to oval window of inner ear.
    • - Malleus, incus, stapes (move at synovial joints)
    • Two small muscles, tensor tympani (handle of mallius - V3) stapedius (stapes - VII) - dampen excessive movement on loud noises.
    • Auditory Tube: opens into anterior wall of tympanic cavity at lateral end
    • - into the nasopharynx at medial end.
  19. What are the parts of the inner ear?
    - Give the innervation
    • Bony labyrinth: is in very dense petrous temporal bone. It contains;
    • - Vestibule: Oval window opens to tympanic cavity (filled by foot plate of stapes).
    • - Cochlea: lies anterior to vestibule. Round window into tympanic cavity
    • - Semicircular canals lie posterior to vestibule, one in each plane.
    • #
    • Supplied by VIII: at the lateral end of the internal auditory meatus, it divides into a cochlear and vestibular portions.

Card Set Information

Author:
vickrum
ID:
302478
Filename:
Head and Neck RCA 4
Updated:
2015-10-01 03:48:38
Tags:
MICN301
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Description:
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