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- generally a smaller organism that lives on or inside and at the expense of a larger animal.
Host expense is dependent on:
- number of parasites
- kind and degree of injury that they inflict
- vigor or nourishment of the host
- a biological association in which one animal is transported by another animal
- two organisms which live together, neither bearing a parasitic relation to the other, but one or both members deriving benefit.
- two organisms living together with a mutual advantageous association of two or more organisms.
_______ is an infestation with parasites.
a. _______ - a condition in which parasites of different species parasitize a single host.
b. _______ - excessive parasitization by the same species
- a. multiple parasitism
- b. superparasitism
Nematodes of zoonotic concern:
____ - round worms
____ - hook worms
____ - whip worms
____ - migrating hook worms under the skin
____ - (CLM) migrating hooks under the skin in a human
____ - ascarids in humans
- cutaneous larval migrans
- creeping eruption
- visceral larval migrans
- passage of parasite via milk
- passage of parasite via placenta.
synonyms: __________, ___________.
- stage in development of egg post cell. It is in this stage that cleavage is present in the cell.
- stage after morula.
- InUtero, intrauterine, transovarian
- vermiform embryo
______ is the basic, most common, internal zoonotic parasite in veterinarian and human medicine
Two types of anemia:
____ describes the normal size of a rbc (micro, macro)
____ describes the normal color of a rbc
- a reduction in the number of RBC and/or a reduction in the hemoglobin concentration
- a. aplastic anemia
- b. clinical anemia
Nematodes that reproduce by laying and hatching eggs are referred to as:
Nematodes that reproduce by birthing live larva without the stage of egg development are referred to as:
An egg that shows indentation in the cell is referred to as _______. This indentation is called __________.
Examples of oviparous nematodes:
Example of viviparous nematode
_______ is number one pathological problem seen with parasitism.
In the life cycle of an oviparous nematode the egg does not _____, it develops.
Parasitic anemia is __________. This means parasites are taking blood from the bone marrow without providing sufficient time for bone marrow to replenish. Overtime this can cause a detrimental anemia.
____ _____ is not closely associated with parasites. This is when the bone marrow is not producing sufficient blood cells needed for the body. This is seen most commonly in cases involving _______.
Generally speaking _________ is a sign of cancer and __________ is a sign of parasitism.
- aplastic anemia
- clinical anemia
3 avenues of communication in the body:
- reduction in the number of rbc and/or reduction in hemoglobin concentration
- lymphatics, circulation, nervous system
We can determine the degree of anemia based on the what?
morphology (appearance) of the red blood cells
Taxonomy: (case sensitive)
- requires intermediate host (___) generally an arthropod. Example:
- no intermediate host needed. Example:
- indirect life cycle: heart worms
- direct life cycle: lung worms (indirect or direct)
- the brand or trade name for a drug.
- the generic name for a drug.
- the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
- proprietary name
- non-proprietary name
- chemical name
- 1: very hard and dry. Pellets
- 2: firm, but not hard. Segmented appearance
- 3: log like. little to no segmentaion
- 4: very moist, distinct log shape. leaves residue
- 5: very moist, distinct shape but appears in piles.
- 6: has texture but no shape. Piles or spots
- 7: watery, no texture at all. Puddles
Two parasites most commonly seen in the stool by the owner
1._____ looks like what
2._____ looks like what
- 1. Ascarids (rounds) spaghetti
- 2. Cestodes (tapes) rice
3 most common tapes seen in stool in Texas
- Diplydium caninum
Regional prevalence of intestinal parasites
Most prevalent to least prevalent:
- West Coast States
Region where heartworm disease is common and hookworms are prevalent.
Southeast United States
First appearance of heartworms was found where?
Hennepin county, Minnesota 1937
An organization designed to foster animal and human health while preserving the human-animal bond through recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of parasitic infections.
CAPC = Companion Animal Parasite Council
An independent association of veterinarians, RVTs and other animal health care professionals established to create guidelines for the optimal control of internal and external parasites that threaten the health of pets and people.
6 Basic CAPC Recommendations are:
- 1. annual physical for your pets
- 2. give preventative flea and tick products asap after birth
- 3. treat with heartworm anthelmintics that protect against zoonotic potential
- 4. give cooked food and fresh water
- 5. retest for heartworms annually
- 6. fecal exmas in adults once or twice a year
What does NCVP stand for?
National center for veterinary parasitology
Why is CAPC and the NCVP against the slow-kill method?
Because the slow-kill method does not actually kill the adult heartworm. Instead we put the animal on a preventative that will decrease the adults lifespan and make it impossible for the adults to reproduce. However, in these dogs it prevents the detection of heartworms. The slow-kill method can convert a positive to a false negative without eliminating the heart worms
List from most effective to least effective which test is best in diagnosing parasitism.
- Polymerase chain reaction test (PCR)
- ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
List the 3 most common fecal tests we do in clinics and give their percentage of effectiveness.
- centrifuge float (99%)
- simple float (84%)
- direct smear (17%)
There is a test developed at Auburn, designed specifically for tapes to detect the proteins from segments in the feces. What is this test called and what is its effectiveness?
Sandwich ELISA test (70%)
Preferred drugs for tapes:
Rule of thumb when choosing solution for a fecal flotation:
Specific gravity of the solution must be heavier than the egg so the egg will float up.
List the appropriate specific gravity required in order to view the eggs of
Ascarids and Ancylostoma (hooks) =
Trichuris vulpis (whips) =
Taenia (tapes) =
Physaloptera (stomach worms) =
What are the two solutions we use at Tomball college and which has a higher specific gravity?
- Zinc sulfate (higher)
- sodium nitrate