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  1. four stages of early development
    cleavage: mitotic divisions

    implantation: embryo implants during blastula stage

    gastrulation: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

    neurulation: germ layers develop a NS
  2. Ectoderm
    • NS
    • epidermis
    • lens of eye
    • inner ear
  3. mesoderm
    • muscles
    • skeleton
    • circulatory system
    • gonadsĀ 
    • kidneys
  4. endoderm
    • lining of digestive tract
    • lungs
    • liverĀ 
    • pancreas
  5. Liver's role in homeostasis
    • gluconeogenesis
    • processing of nitrogenous wastes (urea)
    • detoxification of wastes/ chemicals/ drugs
    • storage of iron and vitamin A
    • synthesis of bile and blood proteins
    • beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones
    • interconversion of carbohydrates, fats, adn amino acids
  6. layers of skin
    • stratum..
    • - corneum
    • - lucidum
    • - granulosum
    • - spinosum
    • - basalis
  7. aldosterone
    stimulates Na+ reabsorption, K+ and H+ secretion, increasing water reabsorption, blood volume, and blood pressure

    secreted from adrenal cortex

    is regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
  8. ADH (vasopressin)
    • increases collecting duct's permeabilit to water to increase water reabsorption
    • --> is secreted from posterior pituitary with high [solute] in the blood

    Kidneys: regulate [salt] and [water] in the blood; functional unit is the nephron
  9. peptide hormones
    act via second messengers
  10. steroid hormones
    act via hormone/ receptor binding to DNA
  11. Anterior pituitary secretes what?
    • FSH
    • LH
    • Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
    • prolactin
    • endorphins
    • GH
  12. FSH
    stimualtes follicle maturation; spermatogenesis
  13. LH
    stimulates vulation; testosterone synthesis
  14. ACTH
    stimulates adrenal cortex to make and secrete glucocorticoids
  15. TSH
    stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
  16. prolactin
    stimulates milk production and secretion
  17. endorphins
    inhibits the perception of pain in the brain
  18. growth hormone
    stimulates bone and muscle growth/ lipolysis
  19. hypothalamus; stored in the posterior pituitary
    • oxytocin
    • ADh (vasopressin)
  20. oxytocin
    stimulates uterine contractions during labor, milk secretion during lactation
  21. ADH
    stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys
  22. Thyroid
    T3, T4

  23. T3, T4
    stimulates metabolic activity
  24. calcitonin
    decreases (tones down) blood calcium level
  25. Parathyroid
    PTH: increases blood calcium level
  26. Adrenal Cortex
    glucocorticoids: increase blood glucose level and decreases protein synthesis; anti-inflammatory

    mineralocorticoids: increases blood glucose level and heart rate
  27. Pancrease
    glucagon: stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver; increases blood glucose

    insulin: lowers blood glucose; increases glycogen stores

    somatostation: suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin
  28. Pineal
    melatonin: regulates sleep-wake cycles
  29. heart
    atrial natriuretic peptide: involved in osmoregulation and vasodilation
  30. Thymus
    thymosin: stimulates T-cell development
  31. Contraction


    sarcomere shortening

    initiation: depolarization of a neuron leads to an action potential

    sarcomere shortening: sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+; Ca2+ binds to troponin on the actin filament; tropomyosin shifts, exposing myosin-binding sites; myosin binds, ATPase activity allows myosin to pull thin filaments towards the center of the H zone, and then ATP cases dissociation

    relaxation: Ca2+ is pumped back into the SR
  32. Reformation
    inorganic ions are absorbed from the blood for use in bone
  33. degradation (resorption)
    inorganic ions are released into the blood
  34. Three portal systems
    blood travels through an extra capillary bed before returning to the heart

    • liver (hepatic)
    • kidney
    • brain (hypophyseal)
  35. fetal circulation
    foramen ovale: connects right and left atria

    ductus arteriosus: connects pulmonary artery to aorta; along with foramen ovale, shunts blood away from lungs

    ductus venosus: connects umbilical vein to inferior vena cava, connecting umbilical circulation to central circulation
  36. plasma
    aqueous mix of nutrients, wastes, hormones, blood proteins, gases, and salts
  37. humoral immunity
    Beta lymphocytes--->

    • memory cells: remember antigen, speed up secondary response
    • plasma cells: make and release antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE) which induce antigen phagocytosis
  38. active immunity
    antibodies produced during an immune response
  39. passive immunity
    antibodies prodcued by one organism are transferred to another oganism
  40. cell-mediated immunity (specific defense)
    • t-lymphocytes-->
    • 1) cytotoxic T cells
    • 2) helper T cells: activate B- and T-cells and macrophages by secreting lymphokines
    • 3) suppressor T-cells: regulate B-and T-cells to decrease anti-antigen activity
    • 4) memory cells
  41. Nonspecific immune response
    includes skin, passages lined with cilia, macrophages, imflammatory response, and interferons
  42. Lipid Digestion
    • 1) Chyme present--> duodenum secretes CCK into blood
    • 2) CCK stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile, and promotes atiety
    • 3) Bile made in liver and emulsifies fat in small intestine
    • 4) Lipase made in pancrease; hydrolyzes lipids
  43. Protein digestion

    - enzymes in the pancreas
    trypsin: converts chymotrispinogen to chymotrpsin


    carboxypeptidases A and B: hyrolyzes terminal peptide bond at C-termimus
  44. Protein digestion
    - intestinal glands


Card Set:
2015-05-11 04:09:07
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