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- Prenatal and Birth
- Death and Dying
Areas of Development
- Physical - Dev. of motor skill, height, weight etc.
- Cognitive - How they start to think in different ways
- Social - Emotional development (interacting with other people)
No longer believe that babies are a blank slate
- Rooting - When you touch a babies cheek they will orient to the side of touch to find the breast
- Grasping - Grab on and gold cuz of survival
- Stepping - Auto step when they get lifted up
- Babinski - Touch a babies food and they curl the toes in
- The reflexes usually turn into skills like walking
- Preference for certain shapes
- Visual abilities
Preference for certain shapes
- Babies prefer to see symmetrical shape of a circle with a face other than a scrambled one or a square. They are attracted to the face.
- When a baby looks at you, you feel good so you want to keep them around. It's part of the evolution and survival of baby
- Have about 20 inches vision everything else is blurry.
- Survival and evolution thing
Social Development: Bonding and Attachment
Bonding and attachment is key because it will determine your whole life
- Conrad Lorenz and Imprinting
- Harry Harlow and Monkey Studies
Conrad Lorenz and Imprinting
- Studied how geese and ducks bond with mothers.
- As soon as they have they bond to the first moving object that they see.
- Imprinting is the above
Harry Harlow and Monkey Studies
- He separated baby monkeys from their mother and would give them a surrogate mom. The baby ends up bonding with the surrogate mom and the mom flings baby off and the baby keeps coming back.
- The surrogate mom is a contraption that he built
- Innate characteristics of babies - "cute"
- Parents innate responses - "parantese"
- Still face experiment
- Also universal like raising voice pitch and tlaking slowly to the baby. The baby also hears best at the higher pitch.
- No one told us that we have to do it, it's innate and we do it automatically
Still Face Experiment
- Babies thrive on responses
- If you don't show emotion the babies get distressed and sad
Freud's Drive-reduction Hypothesis
- Babies get attached to person who reduce their drives
- Baby gets attached to the person who feeds him or her
Bowlby's Tactile Comfort Hypothesis
Tactile comfort signals safety and security and that is what causes the attachment
Harlow's Study - To prove if Freud's or Bowlby's theory is true
- Infant monkeys are separated at birth from mothers. The monkyes get provided with either a cloth surrogate or a wire surrogate who fed them.
- The monkeys preferred the cloth because of comfort that is why Bolby's is the correct hypothesis
Signs of Attachment in Infants
- Separation anxiety from attachment figures around 7 months
- Soothes faster with attachment figures
- Attachment almost inevitably forms, so question is what is the nature of attachment?
Ainsworth Strange Situation
- Infant is with mom in a room (18-23months old). Then a stranger enters the room after a few minutes. After another few minutes the mom leaves. After another few minutes the mom returns.
- What he looked for:
- Infant's behavior in mom's
- Behavior when separated
- Behavior when mom returns
- Infant's behavior in mom's presence
- - does he play with toys? Does he cling to mom? does he go off and look around?
- Behavior when separated
- - is the child crying? is it upset?
- Behavior when mom returns
- - is he happy to see her? mad for leaving? does he even notice?
Attachment Styles based on Ainsworth's Study
- Avoidant and Anxious/ambivalent are considered to be insecure types of attachment
Secure Attachment Style
- Uses mom as a base of exploration, leaves and come back then leaves and come back and over and over.
- Plays comfortably in mom's presence, distressed when left, joyful upon her return
Avoidant Attachment Style
Seems indifferent to mom's presence or absence. When she leaves there is no distress, and when she comes back there is no joy
Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style
Clingy with mom, very distressed when left (seems inconsolable), anxious upon her return
Securely Attached Styles Implication
- More persistent at problem-solving
- Responds better to failure
- More sociable
- More emphatic
- More independent at 2-3 years
What influences attachment styles?
- Parental Behaviors
- Child Characteristics
Parental Behaviors and attachment influences
- Responsiveness to child's needs
- - like being fed, cleaning diaper
- Interactional Synchrony
Child Characteristics and Attachment influences
- Temperament - irritable vs easy
- If irritable they are at a higher risk of not being securely attached because the parents need to do a lot more work unlike easy where it is easy to make a secure attachment
Child Rearing Practices
- Very strict, basically do what I saw and there is no leeway.
- Very structured and child has very little autonomy and decision making abilities in this system
- The opposite of authoritarian. When the parent consciously gives the child ability to make decisions and choices and permitting.
- This is an actual philosophy not neglect
- Promotes greater sense of control
- Where the parent sets the specific rules, and there is also some room for age appropriate autonomy
- Ex. giving freedom of what pajamas to wear but you still have to go to bed at 7. If they are older like 15 years they can go to sleep anytime they want buy you need to still go to school
- Template (idea) about something
- Developed over time
- Fitting new information into existing schema
- Ex. "everything is suckable" for a baby
- Changing existing schema to fit new information
- Ex. "toys are not suckable"
- So if baby is sucking on a toy and the mom is taking it away they will learn that shit is not what I should put into my mouth.
- Birth to ~2years
- Dominated by baby learning by it's senses like touch, smell, feel, etc.
- Lack object permanence before about 12 months
- Sense of Self around 1.5 years.
- Knowing that something exists even if it's no longer in sight.
- Like playing peek a boo cuz to them it looks like magic that your face is disappearing
- Sense of Self Experiment
- Take a child of 1.5 years and put some make up on the nose and put them in front of a mirror, and if the baby touches himself then he's aware and if he reaches out to touch the mirror then it hasn't developed yet.
- ~2-7 years
- Can mentally preform operations in the minds like 1+1=2
- Being able to imagine doing this like moving it back and forth instead of actually doing it like with pencils to count.
- Highly Egocentric
- Thinking is perceptually based and not conceptually based
- Do not have conservation
The person cannot take a different perspective and they think that their own perspective is how everyone else's is.
Perceptually based Vs. Conceptually based
- Conceptually based - abstract concept
- Perceptually based - you cannot tell them about concepts, you have to show them like using marker to do math so they can see it
Knowing something is the same amount though it's perceptually different.
Concrete Operational Stage
- ~7-12 years
- Develop conservation
- Develop ability to revers operations in the minds
Formal Operational Stage
- ~over 12 years
- Abstract thinking emerges
- Can speculate on probabilities and the hypothetical
- - Second order: Thinking about thinking
- - Third order: thinking about thinking about thinking
- The influence of social situations on individuals
- Ex. During shock experiment if the guy getting shocked was in front of them then they would not go that far in voltage rating cuz they can see instead of just hear.
- The guy shocking the person for answering the question wrong.
- Education makes a difference cuz in higher learning you're thought to analyze stuff and do research and develop critical thinking.
- More education = less chance of going far into lethal volt
People behaving in a certain way and will an individual go along with what everyone is doing like looking at the sky
- There is a graph, and question is which line is closer to the main line. There are 7 ppl in room and 1 patient. All 7 say the wrong answer and the patient follows and says what they say.
- The lower the rate like 2:1 then you have less chance of following what everyone else says.
Not going along with the group like in Asch study because you don't feel like you're bound to answer the way that everyone else answers.
- Loss of Personal ID
- People lose sight of who they are and their values and they do things that they wouldn't normally do.
- Stanford Prison Study.
Diffusion of Responsibility
- People refuse to take responsibility
- Bystander Effect
If you walk on the street and have a heart attack the more people around you the less chance of getting help because everyone thinks that well someone else will do it why should I. If there are like 3 people you have more chances of someone doing something vs 20 people.
- Inconsistency between beliefs and actions
- Festinger and Carlsmith Study about test and money (look on notes if you forget the experiment)
- Explanation for cause of event or behavior.
- If you can't verify something you can walk away saying I know what is going on when you really don't.
- Ex. If teacher walks in and falls on the floor people would assume she either stepped on foot wrong, or slipped, or wasn't paying attention when in reality it was not that at all
3 Dimensions Used to Analyze Attribution
- 1. Internal or External
- 2. Stable or Unstable
- 3. Controllable or Uncontrollable
Internal or External Part of 3 Dimensions of Attribution
- Internal - If you say that I'm clumsy and that is why I tripped or you're drunk and that is why you fall
- External - I tripped on something that was on the floor. Cause is that something made you fall.
Stable or Unstable
- Stable - Likely to make behavior persist over time
- Unstable - Make the behavior a 1 time thing
- Ex. I was tierd or preoccupied, presumable I'm not always like that so I wont fall again
Controllable or Uncontrollable
- Control: My behavior is it in my control? Like being drunk
- Uncontrol: Neurological issue that made me fall so that action is likely to happen again cuz you tall yourself that you can't control it.
- If anything bad happens to you, you want to have external, unstable, and controllable situations so you can change it and you wont be depressed since you can change your behavior/action.
- If you say that you're not good at this then it's internal, stable, and uncontrollable cuz you blame yourself WHICH IS BAD, YOU GIVE UP
Why are attributions important?
- Determines behavior and mood
- They predict future behavior and mood. In psychology it's not what happens that is important it is what you think about why it happens.
Errors in Attribution
- Fundamental Error:
- Tend to overlook situation influence and emphasize personality influences. Like getting cut off in traffic and thinking that other person is a dick even though you don't know why they did that, cuz it could be to avoid danger.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
The most widely used and the idea behind it is you change how people think about something like attributions and then you can change your behavior as well because of that.
- Ingroup - "us" people whom one shares a common ID. Subjective. Also ingroup bias is included cuz you tend to favor one's own group
- Outgroup - "them" those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
- Two Components:
- Cognitive - Thoughts about certain group of people
- Affective - how you might feel about the group of people
People are aware of this prejudice. Has decreased over time like being racist and knowing that you have that group of people.
- The people are not aware that they have that prejudice. Also decreased over time but not as much.
- This affects your attitudes and behaviors cuz of the prejudice but you're not aware of it.
- Like race and crime association with blacks
Theories of Prejudice
- Ingroup Bias
- Scapegoat Theory
- Just-World Phenomenon
Prejudice serves as an outlet for anger by providing someone else to blame. Like losing your job @ Ford cuz Toyota is taking over so they are mad at the Japanese to this
- Tendency of people to believe the world is just
- People get what they deserve and deserve what they get
- First track of the fight or flight system - hormones
- Stress hormone
- Has negative effects in your body and suppresses immune system over time
Sympathetic Nervous System
- Second track of the fight or flight system
- Activated primarily through the heart
Chronic Vs Acute Stress
- Chronic - Constant stress not temporary and can be detrimental to health
- The most looked cuz it causes problems
- Acute - Temporary, like hearing footsteps and night and then they go away and your responses stop
Type A Personality Characteristics
Friedman and Rosenman
Cardiologists. Noticed that they always had people with the same characteristic come in, which is hostile. People with this characteristic were 8x more likely to get heart disease
Type B Personality
Very calm, don't seem to be stressed
What Causes Stress?
- Major Life Events
- Daily Hassles
- Primary Appraisal
- Secondary Appraisal
Major Life Events
Any change in life is stressful
Beyond the stress of major life events like, hurricanes etc.
School, waiting in line, traffic, people etc.
How people evaluate the situation, can be good or bad
Is this relevant to me? Like stock market crashes
How am I going to cope with it, do I have enough resources etc.
- Active Coping Styles
- - Problem Focused Stress
- Emotional Coping Styles
- - Emotion Focused Stress
How you deal with the stress in life.
Ways to cope
- Suppressing your feelings and not talking about them
- Have the most health benefits
- The more you talk to people about stuff the better off you are
- Gay people and AIDS.
- The ones who were in the closet got sick and died earlier than the ones who were out of the closet
- A student that dropped out.
- Found him and questioned him about why and he would talk about everything but when someone died he said he felt fine but his blood pressure went up so he was lying to himself and it was detreimental