Parasitology Lab - Test I

Card Set Information

Author:
hbreard
ID:
302630
Filename:
Parasitology Lab - Test I
Updated:
2015-07-08 18:31:27
Tags:
Parasitology
Folders:

Description:
Parasitology Lab - Test I External Parasites - Arthropods, Lice, Fleas, Insects & Mites
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user hbreard on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. ______ – make up ¾ of the species that
    inhabit this planet.
    Parasitic Arthropods
  2. Arthopods can be described as:
    • - Segmented
    • - Jointed
    • - Ex: crayfish, mites, etc.
  3. An ____________ are individuals who study the effects of arthropods on humans throughout the world. An ____________ are individuals who study the effects of arthropods on domestic animals and human diseases.
    • - Medical Entomologist MD
    • - Veterinary Entomologist DVM
  4. List 6 Harmful Effects Caused by Arthropods:
    • 1. Blood Loss - Ex. Clinical anemia and Aplastic anemia
    • 2. Immunity, Hypersensitivity and Toxicity; Example Tick Paralysis
    • 3. Worry - Horn flies, face flies and back flies can bother the animal to the point it cannot feed. It losses weight and is economical a disaster.
    • 4. Secondary Infection
    • 5. Vector Hosts - Mechanical and Biological
    • 6. Myiasis - Infection by flies or fly larvae
  5. _____ are the leading cause of Arthropod infections in the WORLD.
    _____ are the leading cause of Arthropod infections in the US.
    • - Ticks
    • - Mosquitos
  6. Tick paralysis is generally caused by the _______.
    Brown Dog Tick
  7. Hypersensitivity response to the toxin in a bee sting that causes the swelling on a dog's butt or face is called ________________.
    Angioneurotic edema
  8. What is the name that is applicable to any species for the 1st stage larvae?
    Maggot
  9. _____________ – no multiplication or molting of the etiological agent in the vector. 
    _____________ – molting in the intermediate host.
    • - Mechanical Vector
    • - Biological Vector
  10. ____________ any infection caused by fly larvae where the diagnosis can be made based on the location. Give 2 examples.
    • - Myiasis
    • - Gasterophilus intestinalis – lays its eggs on the front legs & shoulders
    • - Hypoderma in cattle – lays eggs in various areas causing lesions of boils on back which creates holes in the leather and destroys the hide.
  11. What external parasite (include nickname) lays eggs that can hatch over night and larvae can be inside the host in 24 hours?
    Cochliomyia hominivorax - the American Screwworm
  12. Name 5 Tick Borne Animal Plagues:
    • 1. Protozoan diseases - Bovine piroplasmosis and canine piroplasmosis
    • 2. Rickettsial diseases - Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q Fever and Ehrlichiosis.
    • 3. Viral Diseases - Louping ill and Western Equine Encephalitis
    • 4. Bacterial Diseases - Tularemia and Canine Bartonellosis
    • 5. Spirochetes - Lyme Disease
  13. Bovine Piroplasmosis - AKA ______.
    Etiology:
    Etiological agent:
    Vector:
    Transmission:
    History: Smith & Kilbourne
    • AKA: TX Fever; Babesiosis
    • Etiology: Protozoan
    • Etiological Agent: Babesia bigemina and bovis
    • Vector: Boophilus annulatus (1 host tick)
    • Transmission: Transovarian - only means of transmission for 1 host ticks
  14. Canine Piroplasmosis
    Etiology:
    Etiological agents:
            US = _______
            Australia & Europe = _______
    Vector:
    • Etiology: Protozoan
    • Etiological agents: Babesia canis (common in US) Babesia gibsoni – Australia & Europe
    • Vector: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3 host tick)
  15. What are the 2 Primary Vectors for all 3 host ticks that cause Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q-Fever and Ehrlichiosis?
    • - Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick) 
    • - Dermacentor variabilis (dog tick)
  16. What is the Etiological agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
    What is the mode of transmission?
    • - Rickettsia rickettsi
    • - Interstadially transmission.
  17. Q Fever (Coxiella):
    Common Name: 
    Etiology:
    Etiological agent: 
    4 Intermediate Hosts: 
    1st brought to this country by:
    • Common Name: Heart Water because of the fluid in the pericardial space
    • Etiology: Rickettesia
    • Etiological agent: Coxiella burnetii 
    • Intermediate Host: Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick); Dermacentor occidentalis (Pacific Coast tick); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Brown dog tick); and Otobius megnini (spider/spinous tick)
    • 1st brought to this country by: Australia 1937
  18. Ehrlichiosis 
    What blood cells does it attack? 
    Common Disease Name:
    Etiology:
    4 Etiological agents: 
    2 primary signs:
    1st symptom generally note is _______.
    • Attacks: both RBCs and WBCs (most important rickettsial disease) 
    • Common Disease Name: Viet Nam Disease
    • Etiology: Rickettsia
    • 4 Etiological agents: Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and potentially E. ruminantium (for cattle).
    • 2 primary signs: Thrombocytopenia (alot of bleeding) & pyrexia (as high as 106o F)
    • 1st symptom: Epistasis
  19. What are 2 tick-borne rickettsial parasites that attack the RBC and WBC of cats? 
    Which etiology appears to occur in the southeastern United States?
    • - Anoplasma phagocytophila
    • - Ehrlichia canis
  20. Ehrlichia canis was first recognized in _______, and first reported in the U.S. in ____.
    The disease gained prominence because of the devastating losses of ____________ dogs stationed in Vietnam.
    • - Algeria in 1935
    • - 1963
    • - Military working
  21. What is the vector associated with an Ehrlichia canis infection?
    Tick- Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the “brown dog tick”
  22. Name 3 Clinical Hematologic Abnormalities Seen in Ehrlichiosis:
    • - Pancytopenia (reduced WBC counts)
    • - Aplastic anemia, or
    • - Thrombocytopenia - most consistent hematologic abnormality in both the acute and chronic stages of ehrlichiosis
  23. What is the name of the condition that causes an ovine encephalomyelitis?
    Primary host:   
    Vector:  
    Came from:
    Etiology:
    • - Louping III
    • - Primary host:
    • - Sheep Vector: Tick - Ixodes ricinus
    • - Came from: Australia
    • - Etiology: Virus
  24. Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) etiology is a _____.
    WEE is transmitted by the ______.
    The vector for WEE is ______.
    • - Virus
    • - Tick/mosquito
    • - Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  25. Tularemia
    Etiology: 
    Etiological agent:
    Primarily host: 
    Vector: 
    Primarily used by:
    • Etiology: Bacteria
    • Etiological agent:
    • Francisella tularensis - a gram(-) rod
    • Primarily host: Sheep
    • Vector/primary intermediate host: Dermacentors and Amblyomma species (3 host ticks)
    • Primarily used by: terrorists.
  26. Bartonella species are fastidious _______ bacteria that are highly adapted to a mammals RBC becoming a lifelong intraerythrocytic bacteremia.
    Gram (-)
  27. List two gram negative bacteria species - include the year they were discovered and which is the most frequent in dogs.
    What is the vector(s)?
    • - Bartonella henselae - 1992
    • - Bartonella vinsonii (berkhoffi) -  1993 - most frequent in dogs.
    • - Ticks - Rhipicephalus sanguineous & Ambylomma Americana (Lone Star tick).
  28. ________ is known as "Cat Scratch Disease."
    ________ is the most common Bartonella disease.
    • - Bartonella hensale
    • - Bartonella vinsonii
  29. What are the modes of transmission of the zoonotic disease Bartonella in cats and dogs?
    • Cat - Scratches
    • Dog - Ticks
  30. Diagnosis and Treatment of Bartonella 
    Clinical signs/hematologic abnormalities: 
    Treatment: 
    Drugs of choice:
    • Clinical signs/hematologic abnormalities: Thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis
    • Treatment: Antibiotics for 30 days to 2 months. 
    • Drugs of choice: Macrolides (Erythromycin and Azithromycin) for 4 to 6 weeks.
  31. ___________ – known as _________ is a vector borne disease affecting people and animals; it is most commonly diagnosed in N. America, Europe, and Asia.
    • - Lyme Disease
    • - Lyme borreliosis
  32. Borrelia are small ________ of a Genus that contains more than 20 species. The Lyme Borrelia have been divided into at least four genomic species groups.
    Spirochetes (bacteria)
  33. What is the most common etiology in North America for Lyme Disease?
    Etiological agent:
    Principal vector:
    • - bacteria; spirochete
    • - Borrelia burgdorferi
    • - Ixodes ticks
  34. Borrelia burgdorferi ________ complex contains two incriminating members as intermediate host for the bacteria.
     ________ is the intermediate host on the East coast. 
    ________ is the intermediate host on the West coast.
    • - Ixodes ricini 
    • - Ixodes scapularis
    • - Ixodes pacificus
  35. Name the 3 Symptoms & 1 Clinical sign of Lyme Disease:
    Name the treatment for Lyme Disease:
    • 1. Verified tick bite
    • 2. Flulike symptoms (fever) for People 
    • 3. A positive blood test Immunoblot
    • 4. Bruise like rash know as Erythema migrans (Nicknamed “bulls eye”)

    **Antibiotic: Doxycycline (Clindamycin-np) **
  36. Name 3 Mosquito Borne Animal Plagues:
    • 1. Protozoa - Carried by mosquitos (Malaria)
    • 2. Viruses - E. Equine Encephalitis (Sleeping Sickness)
    • 3. Filariids - Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitus)
  37. Condition that means “Bad Air”: 
    Primary intermediate host: 
    Etiological agent:
    Etiology:
    • - Malaria
    • - Anopheles
    • - Plasmodium malariae
    • - Protozoan
  38. Life Cycle of Malaria:
    • 1. Sporozoites go directly to the liver because it has been injected into the blood by the mosquito.
    • 2. In the liver it develops a cyst, becomes a merozoite in the liver, enter the RBCs and feed on the hemoglobin.
    • 3. It is a hemoprotozoa not a mucoprotozoan. 4. One of the side effects is the RBCs being lysed and the malaria patients have jaundice appearance – usually seen in the eyes.
  39. Name a Mosquito Borne Plague that the uses the horse as a dead in host. 
    What is another mosquito borne plague that the horse can transmit the disease to another horse?
    • - Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE) - Nickname Sleeping Sickness
    • - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
  40. Name 3 Flea Borne Animal Plagues:
    • 1. Bubonic Plague - Yersenia pestis
    • 2. Acanthocheilonema reconditum (blood filarid)
    • 3. Dipylidium caninum (Cestode)
  41. All true flies discussed are of the order ________.
    There are two forms that exist, which are ______ and ______.
    • - Diptera (Two-Winged)
    • - Aquatic (primitive) and Terrestrial (highly adaptive)
  42. Flies
    Class:
    Order:  
    Sub-Order:
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Sub-Order: Orthorrhapha
  43. List the 3 different groupsof the Orthorrhapha Suborder in order of which is least to most developed:
    • 1. Group: Nematocera shortest most simplistic lifestyles & life cycles.
    • Family: Culicidae  (mosquitoes, sandflies, blackflies, and midgies.)
    • 2. Group: Brachycera – more developed life cycle. 
    • Family: Tabanidae (horseflies, deerflies)
    • - Not pathogenic
    • 3. Group: Cyclorrhapha – Most developed group/Most important.
    • Family: Oestridae
    • - This is where we have our bots, heel flies, grubs and all the flies that are going to present problems.
  44. List the 8 Families are included in the Group – Cyclorrhapha – “Most Important”:
    • 1. Oestridae (Bots) Primarily in sheep
    • 2. Cuterebridae (Bots)Calliphoridae (Blow flies)
    • 3. Sarcophagidae (Flesh flies)
    • 4. Hypodermatidae (Bots & Heel flies, Grub)
    • 5. Gasterophilidae (Bots) Most imp from economical purpose
    • 6. Hyppoboscidae
    • 7. Muscidae (House flies)
  45. Group __________ is the most primitive of the sub-order Orthorrhapha. Antennae are long, many segmented, and hairy. Made up of the gnats and the primary pathogen, the mosquito. This Group also includes the sandfly responsible for Leishmania.
    Nematocera
  46. Group __________ is somewhat more advanced than the primitive Nematocera as they are stout and heavy built.
    Noteworthy members of the Family _______ are comprised of horseflies and deerflies, neither of which bear heavily on the pathology of our domestic patients.
    • - Brachycera 
    • - Tabanidae
  47. Group __________ is the primary pathological transport artist of the Orthorrhaphas.
    Bearing an Arista on the distal segment of the antennae, this group has branched into two directions.
    Cyclorrhapha
  48. Musca domestica is known as the common ____________.
    This external parasite spreads ____________.
    • - House fly
    • - habronemiasis
  49. What is the external parasite whose mouth parts project from the head at a right angle when they are at rest in the environment?
    Stomoxys calcitrans; the common stable fly
  50. Glossina, the ________, is the vector of ________ in domestic animals and humans in Africa.
    Reach up to 14 mm in length. Like stable flies, the mouthparts of the fly project forward from the head, but the wings of tsetse flies lie across the back like scissors.
    • - Tsetse fly
    • - Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucci/Nagana)
  51. List the common names for the following:
    Musca domestica = 
    Musca autumnalis =
    Stomoxys calcitrans =
    Haematobia irritans = 
    Glossina =
    • Musca domestica: House fly
    • Musca autumnalis: Face fly
    • Stomoxys calcitrans: Stable fly
    • Haematobia irritans: Horn fly
    • Glossina: Tsetse fly
  52. Thelazia: 
    Common ______ parasite (classification)
    Mechanical vector:
    ____________ – cattle and horses
    ____________  – cattle and horses
    ____________  – cattle
    ____________  – dogs, sheep and wild mammals.
    • - Nematode
    • - Flies (Musca)
    • - Thelazia lacrymalis
    • - Thelazia skrjabini
    • - Thelazia gulosa
    • - Thelazia californiensis
  53. (Suborder- Orthorrhaphas
    Group- Nematoda)
    Life cycle of Family Culicidae:
    • 1. Egg is laid on water.
    • 2. Hatch in a few days. (have breathing pores that allow them to breathe in water.)
    • 3. Larvae molts 4 times in less than two weeks.
    • 4. Pupae develop into Imago (adult mosquito)
  54. What are the 3 stages of Mosquitoes?
    • a) Larvae
    • b) Pupae (pre-adult)
    • c) Imago (adult)
  55. List 4 diseases where mosquitoes are considered biological vectors:
    • 1) Dirofilaria immitis - falarid
    • 2) Eastern equine encephalitis - viral
    • 3) Malaria - protozoan
    • 4) Yellow fever - viral
  56. Life cycle of the Musca domestica:

    (From the Group - Cyclorrhapha)
    • 1. Egg is laid on manure, or organic material.
    • 2. Maggots; 1st stage larvae,njh emerge is 1-2 days.
    • 3. 1st stage larvae will molt twice into 3rd stage.
    • 4. 3rd stage moves to dry medium and pupates. 
    • 5. Pupae (4th stage) will molt to imago (adult) in 2-3 wks.
  57. Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca domestica are considered mechanical vectors for what condition?
    Summer sores of gastric worms such as Habronema muscae
  58. Life Cycle of Musca autumnalis:


    (From the Group - Cyclorrhapha)
    • 1. Fly crawls on the cow and feeds on ocular/nasal discharge.
    • 2. Eggs are deposited in cattles manure.
    • 3. Eggs hatch and larvae emerge.
    • 4. The larvae molt to pupae and imago.
    • 5. Imago fly away and continue life cycle.
  59. M. autumnalis serve as a mechanical vectors for _________ in cattle and especially horses.
    Thelazia lacrymalis
  60. Life Cycle of Stomoxys calcitrans (stable flies):


    (From the Group - Cyclorrhapha)
    • 1. Flies feed on primarily the blood from horses.
    • 2. They lay eggs in the grass that hatch and molt to imago.
  61. Stomoxys calcitrans serves as a biological vector for _______ like Musca domestica.
    Habronema microstoma
  62. Life Cycle of Haematobia irritans (horn flies):
    • 1. Flies live on the back and suck blood leaving their host only to lay eggs in the feces.
    • 2. Larvae hatch immediately and feed on feces.
    • 3. Pupation occurs in 4-5 days.
    • 4. Imago develops in about 11-12 days.
  63. List 3 treatments used for Horn flies:
    1) pyrethrins

    2) organophosphate

    3) avermectins.
  64. What is the Microfilariae etiological agent that is considered the counter part of Onchocerca cervicalis?
    Vector: 
    Nickname:
    • - Onchocerca gutterosa
    • - Haematobia irritans
    • - “Heartworm Disease in the Cow and the Horse.”
  65. What external parasite is famous to the World Health Organization (WHO) for transmission in both animals and man mainly in Africa? (Genus only)
    Common name: 
    Etiological agent: 
    Causes a condition called:
    Nickname:
    • Genus: Glossina
    • Common name:
    • Tsetse fly
    • Etiological agent: Trypanosoma brucci
    • Causes a condition known as: Nagauna
    • Nickname: Sleeping sickness
  66. What are the 2 most common nicknames used for diseases of animals in the world?
    • 1. Sleeping Sickness
    • 2. Red Water
  67. Life Cycle of the Families Sarcophagidae (Flesh flies) and Calliphoridae (Blow flies):
    • 1. Female lays eggs on wounds, or moist tissue (mouth, eyes, penis etc.)
    • 2. Eggs hatch in one day, and 1st stage larvae feed.
    • 3. Larvae fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days.
    • 4. Imago emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce.
    • 5. Female start laying eggs - can be on the same host or a different host.
  68. The most common external parasite of the Sarcophagidae family is ______.
    They are common in ______.
    • - Cochliomyia hominivorax “American screwworm”
    • - Flesh fly United States & Canada
  69. What is the Etiological agent and nickname of the external parasite that came to Boston via Singapore in plane infecting a dog in Norwell, Massachusetts on November 1, 2007?
    • - Chrysomya bezzian
    • "old world screw worm"
  70. List 6 things that could attact Cochliomyia hominivorax:
    • 1. Docking wound
    • 2. Castration wounds
    • 3. Wire cuts
    • 4. The navels of newborn animals
    • 5. Tick bites
    • 6. Sores
  71. A nationwide control program releasing billions of sexual sterilized adult screwworms flies has almost succeeded in elimination of this _________ from the US.
    Myiasis
  72. The name of the family that has the most advanced parasitic larvae is _____.
    This Family contains external parasites known as _____ and _____.
    The nickname for the larvae is _____.
    The species of animal it affects is _____.
    • - Hypodermatidae
    • - Bots & Heel flies
    • - Grubs
    • - Cattle and Sheep
  73. Life Cycle of Hypodermatidae (Hypoderma lineatum):

    **Occurs in Spring**
    • 1. Cow consumes the eggs or larvae, the larvae penetrates the intestines, and migrates for 5 months before ending up in esophagus.
    • 2. Larvae is in esophagus for 3 months.
    • 3. Larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissues of the back, open breathing holes and molt twice.
    • 4. Larvae (now called Grubs) mature, enlarge breathing holes, escape and fall to the ground to pupate.
    • 5. Adult flies emerge and reproduce to lay eggs.
  74. Life Cycle of Hypodermatidae (Hypoderma bovis):

    **Occurs in Summer to Fall**
    • 1. Eggs are laid on cow’s skin and they hatch.
    • 2. The larvae burrow into the skin and begin migration to the spinal canal. 
    • 3. Larvae move to the back of the cow  to punch holes in the hide for air, molt 2 times, escape through the holes falling to the ground and pupate.
    • 4. Adult flies emerge and begin to reproduce and lay eggs on the back of the cow.
  75. Similarities and Differences between the life cycle of Hypoderma lineatum and Hypoderma bovis:
    • Similarities:
    • - Both eventually migrate to the back of the cow and open breathing holes causing a condition known as "grubby back" then molt twice, escape through the holes - fall to ground and pupate.
    • Differences
    • - Hypoderma lineatum occurs in the Spring, Cow consumes the egg or larvae, penetrates the intestines and migrates to the espohagus.
    • - Hypoderma bovis occurs Summer to Fall and flies lay their eggs on the cows hide. They burrow into the skin and migrate to the spinal canal.
  76. Damage Due to Hypodermatidae:
    Cow hide that is damaged due to the holes punched by the grub is referred to as _________. 
    If the grubs are ruptured it can cause a release of ______, which causes ______ and this can lead to shock and death.
    Treat Hypodermatidae with _____.
    • - Grubby back
    • - Histamine
    • - Vasodilatation
    • - Ivomec
  77. Life Cycle of the Family Oestridae - Oestrus ovis:
    • 1. 1st stage larvae deposited in nostril of sheep.
    • 2. Larvae crawls into nasal passages and sinuses.
    • 3. Molts occur in nasal passages within weeks and the bots crawl out, drop to ground and pupate.
    • 4. Adults emerge 4-6 weeks, mate, lay eggs and die.
    • 5. If weather if bad, 1st stage larvae remain dormant in nasal area.
  78. Oestrus ovis  is also known as _____.
    Sheep Nasal Fly
  79. _____ is considered to be one of the most common and disturbing of the Cyclorrhaphas.
    _____ is a 2nd genus and species that looks similar.
    • - Cuterebra palpebrae
    • - Cuterebra maculata
  80. Life Cycle of the Family Cuterebra (Cuterebra palpebrae):
    • 1. Eggs laid on plants along rabbit trails.
    • 2. Animal picks up egg on fur passing by and they hatch.
    • 3. Larvae crawls to moist area and penetrates.
    • 4. Larvae will stay in self-limiting area for weeks.
    • 5. Larve with emerge, metamorphosis into imago and fly away.
    • 6. Male and females breed and continue laying eggs along runs.
  81. _______ are external parasites that are very host specific and spend their entire lives in the hairs, or feathers of their host, with transmission almost entirely by means of host contacts. 
    Exception is ___________ which cling to the clothing instead of the body hairs during feeding.
    When people are not able to bath or change clothes, ___________ can occur.
    • - Lice
    • - Pediculus corporis
    • - Epidemic Typus
  82. The two orders of Lice are _____ and _____.
    • - Mallophaga
    • - Anoplura
  83. The most common (chewing or biting) lice of the Order Mallophaga are:

    ________ – dogs, coyotes, & wolves (most common of dog)
    ________  – dogs and coyotes
    ________  – cats, bobcats, large cats
    ________  – horse (can include bovis, ovis and caprae)
    • - Trichodectes canis
    • - Heterodoxus spiniger 
    • - Feliola subrostrata 
    • - Damalinia equi
  84. The most common (sucking) lice of the Order Anoplura are:

    _______ - dogs, foxes, coyotes, and rabbits.
    Linognathus setosus
  85. _______ is known as lice infection.
    Pedicularis
  86. Life Cycle of Lice:
    • 1. Eggs (nits) must have feathers/hair/cloth to attatch to.
    • 2. Eggs hatch into tiny replicas of adult lice.
    • 3. Several molts occur with minor changes.
  87. List four things that produce pathogenic pruritus (itching):
    • 1. Fleas
    • 2. Food allergies
    • 3. Sarcoptic mange
    • 4. Atopy (inhalant allergies)
  88. Fleas are vectors for what 5 parasites?
    • 1. Bubonic Plaque (bacteria = Yersinia pestis)
    • 2. Endemic Typhus (Rickettsia prowazeki &  lice)
    • 3. Dipylidium caninum (tapes is the primary but fleas are the intermediate host)
    • 4. Anoplocephala
    • 5. Acanthochelonema Dipetalonema reconditum (heartworm falarid that is spread by fleas), etc.
  89. ________ is the most universally common flea parasite.
    Ctenocephalides felis
  90. The 3 most common flea parasites are:
    • 1. Ctenocephalides felis
    • 2. Ctenocephalides canie
    • 3. Pulex irritans (humans)
  91. Ideal temperature for fleas is ___ and with ___% humidity.
    • - 65-80°F
    • - 70%
  92. Life Cycle of Typical Flea:
    • 1. Flea eggs laid in hosts hair.
    • 2. Hatch in 1-10 days.
    • 3. In 5-11 days, larvae will spin themselves into a sticky cocoon before developing into pupae .
    • 4. Pupae develop into adults in 5 days (however, they can remain dormant for 6 months)
    • 5. Adults emerge and live on the host.
  93. Flea larvae feed on ____ and ____ which contains digestive blood giving the developmental larvae a reddish coloration.
    Sebum and flea feces.
  94. Out of 1,500 flea species, only two, or three will affect our domestic animals. List the two for mammals and one for humans.
    • 1) Ctenocephalides canis and felis - Mammals
    • 2) Pulex irritans - Humans
  95. ______ is the name of lice in man.
    ______ is the name of fleas in man.
    • - Pediculus corporus
    • - Pulex irritans
  96. Egg production begins within ____ hours after females have taken their first meal.
    Blood meals are for females are about ____ and for males are about ____ .
    • - 24-48 hours.
    • - 25 minutes.
    • - 11 minutes.
  97. Life Cycle of Ctenocephalides:
    • 1. Nits (White Eggs) laid on ground, or body and they hatch in 3 - 4 weeks.
    • 2. Larvae will turn Yellowish White color and molt in 1 wk.
    • 3. Larvae then turn Reddish Brown color based on their feeding material and will molt in about 1 wk. 
    • 4. Larvae then return to an Opaque White color in about 1 wk and Spins a cocoon where it will stay dormant until it is stirred, or the temperature is between 65-80 degrees F. 
    • 5. Cocoons that are stirred and in ideal weather will erupt in 2 weeks and produce Pupa. Cocoon can stay dormant for approximately 6 months.
    • 6. The Pupa will be in resting stage for 3-4 weeks and then molt.
    • 7. Adults will live off and on the host for 6 months.
  98. 4 conditions that mean death to flea eggs & larvae:
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Light
    • 3. Humidity below 50%
    • 4. Altitudes above 5,000 ft.
  99. List the Percentage of each stage of the flea off the host:  
    Eggs: __%
    Larvae: __%
    Pupae: __%
    Adults: __%
    • Eggs: 50%
    • Larvae: 35%
    • Pupae: 10%
    • Adults: 5%
  100. 3 Goals of Flea Control:
    • 1. Control fleas on dog.
    • 2. Control fleas in house.
    • 3. Prevent fleas from entering house at other times once under control.
  101. Flea Treatment History:
    1980 - 
    1995 - 
    1996 - 
    1999 - 
    2003 - 
    2007 - 
    2007 - 
    2008 - 
    2011 -
    2013 -
    • 1980 - Ovitral Plus - Topical w/ Precor - First Insect Growth Regulator
    • 1995 - Program - Oral/injectable w/ Lufenuron - Flea has to bite animal to work.
    • 1996 - Frontline (Fipronil) & Advantage Multi (Imidacloprid) - Spot-on
    • 1999 - Revolution (Selemectin) - First internal/external anti- parasitic spot-on.
    • 2003 - Capstar (Nitenpyram) - Single day treatment.
    • 2007 - ProMeris (Metaflumizone & Amitraz) - Spot-on.
    • 2007 - Advantage Multi (Moxidectin & Imidacloprid)
    • 2008 - Comfortis (Spinosad)
    • 2011 - Trifexis (Spinosad & Milbemycin Oxime)
    • 2013 - Seresto (Imidacloprid and Flumethrin)
  102. Frontline "Top Spot"
    • - Merial
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Kills adult fleas and ticks (unique for ticks)
    • Ingredients: Fipronil
    • - Fipronil inhibits the GABA transmission by blocking the Glutamate-gated Cl- channels.
  103. Frontline Plus:
    • - Merial
    • - Topical; monthly.
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Methoprene added to the Fipronil.
    • - Finipronil inhibits GABA transmission by blocking Glutamate-gated C1-channels.
    • - Kills the egg, larvae AND adults.
    • - Also treats sarcoptic mange.
    • - 9% methoprene in dog; 12% methoprene in cat.
  104. Frontline Tritak:
    • - Merial
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Kills fleas and ticks.
    • - Triple action for dogs: Fipronil, (S)-Methoprene, and Cyphenothrin.
    • - Triple action for cats: Fipronil, (S)-Methoprene, and Etodenprox.
  105. Advantage:
    • - Bayer
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Kills adult fleas only, with no effect on ticks.
    • Ingredients: Imidacloprid
    • - Can be used in ferrets/rabbits at 10mg/Kg.
  106. Advantage Multi:
    • - Bayer
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Kills adult fleas, kills and controls Otodectes
    • cynotis.
    • - Prevents heartworms, roundworms, hookworms in dogs and cats as well as whipworms in dogs and ear mites in cats.
    • Ingredients: imidacloprid (40mg) and moxidectin (4 mg).
  107. Advocate:
    • - "European Advantage Multi"
    • - Kills parasites beyond Advantage Multi.
    • Dog: flea, heartworm prevention, ancylostomiasis, ascariasis, trichuris, sarcoptic mange, Otodectes cynotis,
    • demodex, and lice.
    • - Cat: flea, heartworm prevention, ancylostomiasis, ascariasis, and Otodectes cynotis.
  108. Treatment of Demodicosis (canis, cati, gatoi):
    • Etiological agent: Demodex canis, D. cati, D. gatoi
    • Demodicosis caused by: mange mite and suppressed immune system
    • 2 Treatments: Advantage Multi 1 time p/wk for 4-6 weeks, or Amitraz (Mitaban – Proprietary name).
  109. Treatment of Sarcoptic Mange:
    • - Advantage Multi – once every 2 weeks until skin scrapings return negative.
    • Note: this usage is approved for Advocate in Europe.
  110. Triforce (for canine):
    • - Topical; monthly.
    • - Very strong.
    • - Lethal for cats, because it contains Pyrethrin.
    • - Do not use on puppies under 12 weeks of age.
    • - Fleas – kills and repels fleas up to 4 weeks
    • kills flea eggs and larvae for 9 weeks.
    • - Ticks – kills and repeals ticks up to 4 weeks
    • kills and detaches ticks.
    • - Mosquitoes – kills and repels mosquitoes
  111. Triforce (for feline):
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Do not use on feline under 12 weeks of age, or under 2.2 pounds.
    • - Fleas – kills adults, eggs and larvae
    • - Ticks (Deer and Black-legged) – for lyme disease.
    • - Mosquitoes – repels mosquitoes that transmit West Nile  Virus.
  112. Program:
    • - Novartis
    • - Tablet/injectable
    • - Monthly
    • - Ingredient: Lufenuron, which breaks the flea life cycle.
  113. Sentinel:
    • - Novartis
    • - Tablet; monthly
    • - Dogs and cats
    • - Ingredients: Milbemycin oxime & Lufenuron 
    • - Milbemycin oxime eliminates heartworm larvae and hookworm, roundworm, and whipworm adults.
    • - Lufenuron, an ovitral, breaks the flea life cycle by inhibiting egg development.
  114. Sentinel Spectrum:
    • - Novartis
    • - Tablet; monthly
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • -  Ingredients: Milbemycine oxime, Lufenuron, & Praziquantel.
    • - Prevents heartworms.
    • - Prevents and controls fleas.
    • - Treats and controls whipworms, hookworms, roundworms and tapeworms.
  115. Capstar:
    • - Novartis
    • - Tablet; monthly.
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Kills fleas with 4-6 hours.
    • - Only last for 24 hours.
    • Active ingredient: Nitenpyram – adult fleas only!
    • - Also good for animals suffering from maggots, such as the American Screwworm.
    • - Used on animals at LSTomball.
  116. Parastar Plus:
    • - Novartis
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - For dogs ONLY.
    • - Kills adult fleas, ticks and chewing lice.
    • - Controls mites that may cause Sarcoptic mange
    • - Ingredients: Fipronil and Cyphenothrin
  117. K9 Advantix:
    • - Bayer
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Prevents and treats fleas, ticks and mosquitoes.
    • - Ingredients: Imidacloprid & Permethrins.
    • - For dogs ONLY, because Permethrins kills cats as they lack the necessary enzymes in the liver to break it down.
  118. K9 Advantix II:
    • - Bayer
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Prevents and treats against fleas, ticks and mosquitoes.
    • - Also repels biting flies and lice.
    • - Works within 12 hours.
    • - Ingredients: Imidacloprid & Permethrins
    • - For dogs ONLY, because Permethrins kills cats as they lack the necessary enzymes in the liver to break it down.
  119. Revolution:
    • - Pfizer
    • - Topical; monthly (one of 1st topicals)
    • - Dogs and cats.
    • - Kills fleas and prevents flea eggs from hatching. Though it kills fleas slowly.
    • - Protects from heartworms.
    • - Prevents and controls flea infestations and is considered by many as the drug of choice for ear mites and scabies.
    • - Also prevents, or controls D. immitis, Otodectes cynotis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ancylostoma and Toxocara in cats.
    • Ingredient: Selemectin
  120. Vectra 3D:
    • - Summit-Vet Pharm Corporation
    • - Topical; monthly.
    • - Most recent topical spot-on applicator.
    • - Kills fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes.
    • Ingredients: dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen,
    • permethrin.
    • - Contain permethrin, which kills cats.
    • However, there Vectra (for cats).
  121. ProMeris:
    • - Ft. Dodge
    • - Topical spot-on
    • Ingredients:  Metaflumizone = fleas
    •                        (this chemical smells bad)
    •                         Amitraz = ticks
    •                        (this chemical kills cats and
    •                          horses.)
    • - Amitraz is ideal for treating Demodectic mange.
    • - Dogs – have both chemicals for fleas and ticks
    •   Cats – have only metaflumizone for fleas only (8 wks and older)
  122. Comfortis:
    • - Elanco
    • - Tablet; monthly
    • - For dogs ONLY.
    • Ingredient: Spinosad
    • - Kills fleas starting in 30 minutes by attacking the fleas nervous system.
    • - Vomiting may occur.
    • - This is the first oral flea product since Proban- an
    • organophosphate approved by the FDA in 1976.
  123. Trifexis:
    • - Elanco
    • - Tablet; monthly
    • - Dogs only.
    • Ingredient: Spinosad
    • - Begins killing biting fleas within 30 minutes and kills fleas before they can lay eggs.
    • - Prevents heartworm disease.
    • - Treats and controls roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms.
  124. Kiltix:
    • - Bayer
    • - Very strong
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - No longer available.
    • - Kills and repels ticks only.
    • Ingredient: Permethrin
    • - Dogs only over 12 weeks of age.
  125. Profender:
    • - Bayer
    • - Topical; monthly
    • - Treat and prevent hookworms, roundworms, and tapeworms infections.
    • - For cats.
    • - Ingredients: emodepside/praziquantel
  126. Name 4 OTC Products for Flea and Tick Control:
    • 1. Ovitral Flea Egg Collar
    •     - Kills flea eggs and prevents them from
    •       hatching for 4 months.
    •     - For dogs.
    •     - First flea collar.
    •     - By Vet-Kem.

    • 2. Seresto
    •     - By Bayer
    •     - 8 months of flea/tick prevention.
    •     - Ingredients: Imidacloprid and Flumethrin
    •     
    • 3. BreakThru!
    •     - By Nylar
    •     - Topical; monthly; dogs only.
    •     - Kills fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes.
    •  
    • 4. Acarexx
    •     - Ivermectin Otic Suspension for ears.
    •     - Treats ear mites, heartworm prevention,
    •        sarcoptic mange, demodectic
    •        mange and Otodectes cynotis 
    •     - Last 3 weeks.
  127. Class Insecta: 2 Miscellaneous Insects

    1. _______
    2. _______
    • 1. Cockroaches
    •       Order: Orthoptera
    •       Family: Blattidae 

    • 2. Beetles
    •       Order: Coleopters
    •       - Intermediate host for Spirocera lupi
    •          and Physaloptera.
    •       - Egg-Coprophagic Beetle-
    •         Facultative Host-Host (dog)-
    •         Penetrate stomach wall-
    •         arterial system-esophagus.
  128. Characteristics of Larval Stages:
    1. __________
    2. __________
    3. __________
    4. __________
    5. __________
    • 1. 3 pairs of legs
    • 2. Nymphs and adults have 4 pairs of legs.
    • 3. Head, thorax, abdomen are fused.
    • 4. Antennae and mandibles not present.
    • 5. Mouth parts covered by false head (capitulum)
  129. Taxonomy of the Class Arachnida:
    Class - _____
    Order - _____
    Suborder - _____
    2 Familes - ______ (Hard Tick)
                       ______ (Soft Tick)
    • Class: Arachnida
    • Order: Acarina
    • Sub-Order: Metastigmata (Ticks)
    •                  Metastigmata (Mites)
    • Family: Ioxidae (Hard Tick)
    •             Argasidae (Soft Tick)
  130. Tick Life Cycle:
    • 1. Egg
    • 2. Six Legged Larvae (Called the “Seed Tick”)
    • 3. Eight Legged Larvae (“Nymph”)
    • 4. Eight Legged Larvae – Mature Form - Adult – Sexually Mature
  131. Ixodid Tick Characteristics:
    • 1. Shield, or scutum that covers the entire dorsal surface.
    • 2. A capitulum that projects anteriorly.
  132. __________ – tick completes both molts common to the Ixodid tick without leaving its host. List 1 example.
    • - One host tick.
    • - Boophilus annulatas.
  133. Life cycle of Two Host Tick & Three Host Tick and name the mode of transmission for Two and Three Host ticks:
    • - Two Host Tick: Seed Tick larvae will molt to the Nymph, Nymph will drop off 1st host, molt to Adult, and then the Adult will locate to 2nd host.
    • - Three Host Tick: Larvae drops to molt to Nymph, Nymph find a 2nd host, Nymph drops off 2nd host to molt to Adult, Adult then locates on the 3rd host.
    • - Interstadially (AKA Transtadially)
  134. Rain drop = ______.
    Puriform
  135. 2 Three Host Tick Examples:
    • 1. Dermacentor variabilis
    • 3. Rhipicephalus sanquinius
  136. Equine Babesiosis (AKA _______)
    Etiology: _______  – horses, mules, &
                                   donkeys.
                  _______ – horses, mules,
                                  donkeys and
                                  zebras – Group 4.
    Intermediate Host: ________.
    • AKA: Equine Piroplasmosis
    • Etiology: Babesia caballi – horses, mules, and
    •                                        donkeys.
    •                 Babesia equi – above and zebras
    •                                      – Group 4
    • Intermediate Host: Boophilus annulatus
  137. Which animals may be more susceptible to Canine piroplasmosis?
    • Animals that have been splenectomized because they have a reduced ability to produce 
    • lymphocytes and thus have reduced antibodies to combat the trophozoites in the RBCs.
  138. Cowdria:
    Etiology - _______.
    Etiological agent - ________.
    Disease Name - _______.
    Characteristic Lesion - _______.
    Intermediate Host - ________.
    • Etiology: Rickettsia
    • Etiological agent: Cowdria ruminatium
    • Disease Name: “Heartwater”
    • Characteristic Lesion: Hydropericardium 
    • producesfluid in the pericardial space of the heart. Causes cardiac tamponade.
    • Intermediate Host: Amblyomma
  139. IDEXX Testing and What They Test For:
    • Snap 3DX Test: - Heartworms
    •                          - Borrelia burgdorferi
    •                          - Erlichia canis
    • Snap 4DX Test: - Anaplasma species
  140. Family Ixodidae – Hard Tick
    List 7 species:

    _______ - Lyme Disease
    _______ - Lone Star Tick
    _______ - Gulf Coast Tick
    _______ - Am Dog Tick/Wood Tick
    _______ - Brown Dog Tick
    _______ - Texas Cattle Fever Tick
    _______ - Continental Rabbit Tick

    A. maculatum is known the _____ tick.
    • - Ixodes scapularis (dammini)
    • - Amblyomma americanum
    • - Amblyomma maculatum
    • - Dermacentor variabilis
    • - Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    • - Boophilus annulatus
    • - Haemaphysalis leporispalustris
  141. List the 4 Species of the Family Argasidae – “Soft Tick”:
    • - Argas persicus - “Fowl Tick”
    • - Antricola
    • - Otobius megnini - “Spinous Ear Tick”
    • - Ornithodoro
  142. List the 3 suborders of Mites:
    • - Mesostigmata
    • - Astigmata
    • - Prostigmata
  143. What is a Stigma?
    A respiratory pore in the middle of the body.
  144. Suborder Mesostigmata Members of the Family Railletidae:

    _________ – harmless in ear of cattle
    _________  – yellow nodules in lungs of monkeys
    _________  – nasal and paranasal sinuses of dogs. Causes Epistaxis and sneezing.
    _________  – adult mites can survive for extended periods of time in bird nests and chicken houses. Most common and important of zoonotic problems in man.
    ______________  species – rodents, snakes, and birds.
    • - Raillietia auris
    • - Pneumonyssus simicola
    • - Pneumonyssus caninum
    • - Dermanyssus gallinae
    • - Ornithonyssus species
  145. Suborder ________  has no respiratory pore. Includes the Families ________ and ________ which collectively cause skin associated problems known as Scabies, with pruritus, alopecia, epidermal hyperplasia, and epidermal hyperpigmentation.
    • - Astigmata
    •    - Psoroptidae
    •    - Sarcoptidae
  146. Mange mites are identified in these 2 ways:
    • 1. Host and distribution of the lesions.
    • 2. Characteristic jointed or unjointed legs.

    **We use #1 because we don’t have dissection scopes**
  147. An important characteristic for identification of a number of common mites is length and segmentation of the stalk, AKA _____, connecting a sucker to the leg.
    In Sarcoptes species mites, the stalk is ____ and ____.
    Psoroptes as a ____ and ____ pedicle.
    • - Pedicle
    • - Long and unjointed
    • - Long and jointed.
  148. Family Sarcoptidae:
    Definitive Host Sarcoptes - ____.
    Lesions: ______.
    Definitive Host of Notoedres: ____.
    Lesions: _____.
    • Family: Sarcoptidae - scabies;mites
    • Definitive Host Sarcoptes: Dog (swine, horse, cattle, and man).
    • Lesions: Margin of ears.
    • Definitive Host of Notoedres: Cat (rats, rabbits, and man)
    • Lesions: Margins of ears, head, on to paws.
  149. Family Psoroptidae:
    Definitive host for Psoroptes - ____.
    Lesions - ______.
    Definitive host for Chorioptes - ____. 
    Lesions - ______.
    Definitive host for Otodectes: ____.
    Lesions - ______.
    • Definitive host for Psoroptes: Sheep, cattle, and horses.
    • Lesions: Hair loss Starts at withers and becomes generalized.
    • Definitive host for Chorioptes: Horse (cattle, sheep and goats).
    • Lesions: Hair loss starts at pasterns, later moves up the leg.
    • Definitive host for Otodectes: dogs, cats, and pocket pets.
    • Lesions: Ear canal and face
  150. The most common mange mite of omnivores and carnivores is _______.
    They live in _______.
    The development time and treatment is _________.
    • - Otodectes cynotis
    • - Outer ear canal (surface skin)
    • - About 3 weeks and are treated with 0.01 ivermectin (Acarexx) once a week for 3 weeks to ensure all development stages from hatching eggs have been eliminated.
  151. List 5 things you can find in the ear canal:
    • - Trombicula larvae
    • - Otobius megnini
    • - Otodectes
    • - Malassezia
    • - Bacteria
  152. Demodicosis - Suborder Prostigmata:
    Superfamily - _____.
    Family - ______ – live in the skin and in glandular ducts.
     ______  – canine
    • Superfamily: Cheyletoidea
    • Family: Demodicidae
    • Species: Demodex canis

    **It is the most feared and treated of all mites.**
  153. Differentiate Sarcoptes and Demodex:

    1. Location of early lesions:
    2. Cause of the disease:
    3. Age predilection: 
    4. Treatment protocol: 
    5. Contagious or not: 
    6. Drug contraindication and indications: 
    7. Surgical recommendations: 8. Public health indications:
    • 1. Location of early lesions:
    • Demodex - face
    • Sarcoptes – margins of the ears
    • 2. Cause of the disease:
    • Demodex –  mite and immune system, Sarcoptes - just the mite
    • 3. Age predilection:
    • Demodex - pediatric/geriatric because it is suppressed immune system
    • Sarcoptes – any age because it just involves the mite.
    • 4. Treatment protocol:
    • Demodex - Amitraz
    • Sarcoptes – Ivermectin or any dip
    • 5. Contagious, or not:
    • Demodex - no
    • Sarcoptes - yes
    • 6. Drug contraindication and indications: Demodex - contraindication; no corticosteroids.
    • Sarcoptes – indication is corticosteroids to stop itching
    • 7. Surgical recommendations:
    • Demodex – yes castration, because it is hereditary.
    • Sarcoptes – none not hereditary
    • 8. Public health indications:
    • Demodex – not contagious
    • Sarcoptes – yes contagious
  154. Life Cycle of Otodectes cyanotic:
    • 1. Egg – 4 days
    • 2. Larvae – 3-5 days
    • 3. Protonymph – 3-5 days
    • 4. Deutonymph – 3-5 days
    • 5. Adut – 8 legs and lives for only 2 months
  155. 2 Forms of Demodicosis:
    • 1. Localized demodicosis
    • 2. Generalized demodicosis
  156. ____% with generalized demodicosis under 1 yr will recover spontaneously w/o intervention.
    Nickname - _____.
    Cause of Demodex canis and D. cati - _______.
    • - 30-50%
    • - "Red Mange"
    • - Mite and suppressed immune system.
  157. Name the 2 most common gram negative bacteria:
    • 1. Staphylococcus
    • 2. Streptococcus
  158. Name 2 causes of Demodectic mange:
    • 1. Mites
    • 2. Suppressed immune system.
  159. Adult onset of Canine Demodicosis was reported to be associated with what 4 situations?
    • 1) 32% - Corticosteroid Administration - can use for other sacoptic mange etc. just not demodex. 
    • 2) 20% - Hypothyroidism
    • 3) 12% - Cytotoxic Drugs (cancer treatment drugs)
    • 4) 8% - Hyperadrenocortism (Cushing’s Syndrome)
  160. List 5 treatments for Demodicosis:
    • 1. Amitraz: (Mitaban)
    •     - Pfizer
    •     - A diamide compound
    •     - Dip every 2 weeks for 5 treatments, or at least twice after multiple skin scrapings are negative. 
    •     - 85% success rate
    • 2. Milbemycin oxime: (Interceptor)
    •     - Novartis
    •     - Twice a day every 30 days for 3 months. (6 doses for 3 mo.) 
    •     - 96% remission in the 3 months, 29% relapsed within 1 yr.
    • 3. Ivermectin: (Ivomec 1%)
    •     - Merial
    •     - 0.6 mg/ kg / day until lesions disappear. 
    • 4. Lufenuron: (Program)
    •     - Novartis
    • 5. Advantage Multi: (Moxidectin & Imidacloprid)
    •     - Bayer
    •     - Oral - 1 cc /60# daily until 2    
    •       scrapings are negative.
    •     - Topical – 1 time a week for
    •        4 weeks.
  161. List 7 Causes of Demodicosis Treatments:
    • 1. Premature suspension of treatment.
    • 2. Failure to treat skin bacterial infections.
    • 3. Stress with environment and family.
    • 4. Heat cycle.
    • 5. Iatrogenically induced glucocorticoids.
    • 6. Underlying concurrent diseases. (hyperthyroidism, hypercorticism)
    • 7. Idiopathic problems with the patient.
  162. In the early 1970s, what was the 1st and only treatment  for demodicosis?
    • Scott’s Solution (created by Dr. Danny Scott):
    • Contained 5 parts propylene glycol with 1 part ectoral (organophosphate) and applied to 1/3 of the dog’s body everyday for as long as it took for remission.
  163. Demodicosis:
    _________  – pus nodules on the head.
    _________  – lesions on the eyelids in sheep.
    _________  – lesions all over the body goats.
    _________  – around eyes and snout.
    _________  – hair loss starts on the head.
    _________  – lesions on the head and ear canal.
    • - Demodex bovis
    • - Demodex ovis 
    • - Demodex caprae 
    • - Demodex phyllodides 
    • - Demodex equi
    • - Demodex cati/gatoi
  164. What is the treatment regiment of Ivermectin that is practiced by most Houston veterinarians for the treatment of Demodicosis?
    • - 0.1 mg/kg X 7 days, then
    • - 0.2 mg/kg x 7 days, then
    • - 0.3 mg/kg for 28 days up to 6 months
    • (skin scrape at least once a month during this time)

    • Note: continue treatments up to 4-6 weeks after negative
    • skin scraping have been seen.
  165. Family Cheyletiellidae:
    Family Nickname - _______.
    ________  – dogs AKA “_______”
    ________  – cats
    ________  – domestic rabbits
    • Family Nickname: “Big Claw”
    • Dogs: Cheyletiella yasguri AKA “Walking Dandruff” ,or "Mealy dandruff"
    • Cats: Cheyletiella blakei 
    • Rabbits: Cheyletiella parasitivorax
  166. Family Psoroptidae:
    ________ - “sheep itch mite”. Is it a reportable disease?
    ________ - “dog itch mite” 
    ________ - “cat itch mite”
    • Sheep: Psorobis ovis - will result in pruritis and alopecia effecting the wool industry and entire countries economy, so yes. 
    • Dog: Sarcoptes scabei
    • Cat: Notoedres cati
  167. Family Trombiculidae:
    ________ are known as “chiggers” and are the pathogenic members of the developmental stages.
    - Trombiculid larvae
  168. Describe "Chiggers": 
    Appearance/Location/Symptoms
    • - Tiny bright red - six legged larvae found in the ear canal of mammals, under wings of birds and around the vent openings of birds. 
    • - They cause severe itching and dermatitis
  169. Lice:
    - Young are born as a small adult with few andminor changes with their molts labeling lice without a true metamorphosis.
  170. Characteristics of Lice:
    • - Wingless
    • - Entire life on host
    • - Direct contact needed for spread
    • - Louse produce nits
    • - Life cycle varies from 14-21 days.
  171. 2 Types of Lice:
    • 1. Anoplura (sucking lice) – Linognathus setosus 
    • 2. Mallophaga (biting lice) – Trichodectes canis & Felicola subrostrata
  172. Fleas obviously cause anemias and massive blood loss, but do they serve as vectors as well?
    Yes.

    1. Fleas are responsible for transmission of blood filarid A. reconditum, often confused with microfilaria of D. immitus.

    2. Fleas, the inoculation of flea feces and saliva in infected nail beds of cats and cat bites are routes of transmission of bacteria B. henselae (and other species) resulting in what is known as Cat Scratch Disease.
  173. a) Fleas can consume as much as __% of the host blood while in residence.

    b) For every one flea you see, there are ___ other fleas in other stages of development.

    c) Only __% to __% of the entire flea population is found onthe animal at any one time.
    • a) 5%
    • b) 19
    • c) 5-10%
  174. Flea Activity On The Host:
    • > Fleas will mate within 12 hours on the host.
    • > Eggs are produced within 24 hours on the host.
    • > Female flea will average 27 eggs per day.
    • > Each female flea will produce 2,000 eggs in life time.
  175. What are fleas attracted too?
    • > Dark clothes (especially worn over light shirt).
    • > Lactic acid produced during play attract more.
    • > Carbon dioxide also produced during play.
    • > Animals standing in the dark tend to attract more.
    • > Fleas prefer a dry place as opposed to moisture.
  176. ______ – is a term used by parasitologist to indicate where the eggs have been laid.
    Source Point
  177. Elimination of Fleas - Two methods available to us:
    • a. kill the flea.
    • b. interference with its reproduction/hatching.
  178. Flea – Insect Growth Regulators:

    1. _____
    2. _____
    3. _____
    4. _____
    • 1. Juvenille Hormone Analogs - Safest
    • 2. Insect Development Inhibitor - Lufenuron (Program) - Stop growth of egg so it does not  hatch.
    • 3. Cyromazine – Blocks formation of new cuticle in the fly larvae.
    • 4. Diflubenzuron - Not a true IGR; & Interferes with chitin desposition.
  179. Lack of Flea Control Factors:
    • 1. Prolong life cycle of the fleas
    • 2. Resistance and Genetic Variability
    • 3. Lack of owner compliance
    • 4. Urban wildlife
  180. Juvenille Hormone Analogs – These products act in one of two ways:
    • > The product will stop the growth of the egg (no hatch).
    • > Egg develops, but the larvae does not and larvae dies.
  181. _____ – are more important actually as vectors of infectious organisms. There effect on the skin is really minor and is usually limited to bites.
    Flies
  182. __________  – flies lay eggs on theleaves of rabbit runs. When animals walk by, they pick up the eggs that hatch to larvae and penetrate the skin of the host.
    Cuterebra maculata (palpebra)
  183. ____, ____ & _____ - Unique of these insect characteristics is the female ovipositor is adapted for stinging. The stinger breaks off and remains in the wound.
    • - Bees
    • - Wasps
    • - Hornets
  184. Results of Being Stung by a Bee, Wasp, or Hornet:
    • - Redness
    • - Edema 
    • - Other forms of inflammation.
    • - Anaphylaxis can result  
    • - Angioneurotic Edema can result.
  185. Some of the common skin funguses that we deal with are:
    • - Candida albicans
    • - Malassezia pachydermatis
    • - Cryptococcus neoformans
    • - Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • - Histoplasma capsulatum
  186. Candida albicans:
    • - This yeast is often found on normal mucus membranes.
    • - Generally this infection is seen after prolonged antibiotic therapy, immunosuppresive diseases, or skin damage.
  187. Malassezia pachydermatis:
    • - One of the most common causes of Otitis externa, along with Otodectes cynotis.
    • - This yeast is usually common in dogs and cats.
    • - Also found in low numbersin ear canals, perianally, and where ever you find moist skin.
  188. __________  are superficial funguses known as “Ringworm” by most people.
    Dermatophytes
  189. Dermatophytes can be classified as to the habitat in which they are most likely to be found:

    _____ – confined to human beings
    _____ – parasites of animals
    _____ – normally existing as free living saprophytes in the soil.
    Anthropophilic: confined to human beings Zoophilic: parasites of animalsGeophilic: normally existing as free-living saprophytes in the soil
  190. How To Diagnose Ringworm - 2 Methods:
    • 1. Woods Lamp
    • 2. Direct Microscopy
  191. Diagnosing Ringworm - Wood's Lamp (Woods Light):
    • - Hair samples from dogs and cats can be examined under an ultraviolet lamp.
    • - If the hair is infected withMicrosporum canis, M. distortum or M. audouinii it may fluoresce a clear apple green if in a darkened room.
    • - However, only 50% of the positive cases will fluoresce, so this technique does have its pit falls.
  192. 90% of all ringworm in ____ is M. canis
    70% of all ringworm in ____ is M. canis
    • - Cats
    • - Dogs
  193. Diagnosing Ringworm - Direct Microscopy:
    • - A few hairs and a little of the skin scrapings are placed in a drop of 20% KOH on a microscope slide.
    • - A coverslip is applied with a gentle pressure.
    • - Allow the slide to sit for 15 minutes.
    • - Examine under low-power and then under high.
    • - If positive, you will see the arthrospores attached to the roots of the hairs.
  194. Mouth - Protozoan - Family – Mastigophora
    List the genus and species:
        1. ____________
        2. ____________
    • - Trichomonas canistomae
    • - Toxoplasma gondii – occurs in the mouth but can occur intracellular or extracellular.
  195. Nematodes of the Esophagus and Stomach:
    1. Family – Spiruroidea
           Genus/species - ________.
    2. Family – Physalopteridae
           Genus/species - ________.
    • 1. Spirocerca lupi – can cause tumors of the esophagus, occasionally the stomach.
    • 2. Physaloptera rara - dog/Physaloptera praeputialis -cat
  196. Nematodes of Small Intestines - Roundworms:
    Family – ________.
    Genus/species - _______.
    • Family: Ascaridoidea 
    • Genus/species: Toxocara canis (dog); Toxocara cati (cat); Toxascaris leonina (dog and cat)
  197. Nematode of Small intestines - Family –Trichuroidea:
    Genus/species - ______.
    Inhabit the - _______.
    How dogs get it - _________.
    2 treatments - _________.
    • Genus/species: Trichinella spiralis
    • Inhabit the: Mucosa
    • Dogs get the disease from: Eating uncooked meat
    • 2 Treatments: Albendazole for several days, or Ivermectin
  198. Cestodes of the Small Intestines - Family – Taeniidae –

    Genus/species: Rabbit – ___________.
    Genus/species: Ruminants - ____________.
    Genus/species: Rodents – ____________.
    Genus/species: Man, Swine – __________.
    • Genus/species:
    • Dog - Taenia pisiformis 
    • Rabbit – Cysticercus pisiformis
    • Genus/species
    • Dog/cat - Taenia hydatigena 
    • Ruminants – Cysticercus tenuicollis
    • Genus/species: 
    • Cat - Taenia taeniaeformis
    • Rodents – Cysticercus fasciolaris
    • Genus/species: 
    • Dog - Echinococcus granulosus
    • Man, Swine – “Hydatid cyst”
  199. Cestodes of the Small Intestines:
    Family - ________.
    Genus/species - _______. (include nickname)
    Flea/Mite - ________.
    • Family: Dipylidiidae
    • Genus/species: Dipylidium caninum (Cucumber Seed Tape)
    • Flea/Mite: Cysticercoid
  200. Cestodes of the Small Intestines:
    Family - ________.
    Genus - _______.
    Birds/reptiles - _______.
    • Family: Mesocestidae
    • Genus: Mesocestoides spp.
    • Birds/Rep: Tetrathyridium
  201. Cestodes of the Small Intestines:
    Family - _________.
    Genus/species - _______ (dog)
                            _______ (cat)
    • Family: Diphyllobothriidae
    • Genus/species: Diphyllobothrium latum (dog)
    •                            Spirometra mansoni (cat)
  202. In the US we only see commonly what 3 cestodes of the small intestine?
    • - Dipylidium caninum - flea
    • - Taenia pisiformis - rabbit
    • - Taenia taeniaformis - rodent
  203. Trematodes of Small Intestines:
    Family – Diplostomatidae:
    Genus/species: _________.
    Family – Troglotrematidae
    Genius/species: ________.
    • - Alaria canis "stomach fluke"
    • - Nanophytes salmincola
  204. Nanophytes salmincola Life Cycle:
    • 1. Dog grabs salmon fish.
    • 2. Dog eats salmon fish intestines first.
    • 3. Dog ingest the Neorickettsia helminthoeca (Salmon Fluke).
    • 4. Neorickettsia  kills Dog, b/c it releases a toxin called "Salmon Poisoning," Nanophytes salmincola.
  205. Trematodes of Small Intestine Family - Acanthocephalan:
    Genius/species - _______. 
    Looks similar to - _______.
    • Genus/species: Onicola canis
    • Look similar to: Alaria canis
  206. Trematodes of Small Intestine: 
    Class - Protozoa
  207. Cecum and Colon
    Nematode - Family - Trichuroidea – Genus/species -________ (dog) 
                           ________ (cat)
    Protozoa - Family – Sarcodina – Genus/species - ________
                            ________
    Protozoa -  Family – Ciliophora - Genus/species - ________
    • Genus/species: Trichuris vulpis (dog)
    •            Trichuris campanula & T. serrate (cat)
    • Genus/species: Entamoeba histolytica
    •                        & Entamoeba coli
    • Genus/species: Balantidium coli
  208. Trematodes of Liver and Pancreas:
    Family – Opisthorchiidae
    Genus/species - __________.
    Opisthorchis tenuicollis
  209. Arthropods of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses:
    Family – Linguatulidae
    Genus/species - __________.
  210. Nematodes in the Lung Parenchyma:
    1. Family – Metastrongyloidea
    Genus/species - _______ 
                                _______
    2. Family - Filariodidea  
    Genus/species - _______
    3. Family - Rhabditoidea
    Genus/species - _______
    4. Family - Ancylostomatoidea
    Genus/species - _______
                                _______
                                _______
    5. Family Ascaridoidea
    Genus/species - _______
    • 1. Filaroides milksi & Filaroides hirthi
    • 2. Dirofilaria immitis
    • 3. Strongyloides stercoralis
    • 4. Ancylostoma caninum; A. braziliense; Uncinaria stenocephala
    • 5. Toxocara canis
  211. Trematodes in the Lung Parenchyma:
    Family – Troglotrematidae
    Genus/species - _________.
    Paragonimus kellicotti
  212. Nematode of the Pulmonary Artery, R. Heart and Vena Cava:
    Family – Filarioidea
    Genus/species - ________
    Paragonimus kellicotti
  213. Microfilarial Nematode of Blood:
    Family – Filarioidea
    Genus/species - ________
    What is the filarid of blood? - __________.
    • - Dirofilaria immitis
    • - Acanthocheilonema reconditum
  214. Protozoan of the Blood:
    Family - Sporozoan
    Genus/species - _________.
    Intermediate host - _________.
    • - Babesia canis
    • - Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3 host tick)
    •         "Brown Dog Tick"
  215. Nematode Larvae in Skeletal Muscles belonging to the:
    1. Family – Trichuroidea
    Genus/species - __________.
    2. Family - Ancylostomatoidea 
    Genus/species - ________
                                ________
                                ________
    3. Family - Ascaridoidea
    Genus/species - _________
                                ________
    • 1. Trichinella spiralis 
    • 2. Ancylostoma caninum; A. braziliense; Uncinaria stenocephala
    • 3. Toxocara canis; Toxocara cati
  216. Nematode of the Connective Tissue belonging to the:
    1. Family – Filaroidea
    Genus/species - _______
                                _______
    Adults can form subcutaneous cysts - Produces “__________”
    2. Family - Cuterebra 
    Genus/species - ________
                                ________
    3. Family – Calliphoridae
    Genus/species - ________
    • 1. Acanthocheilonema reconditum; Dirofilaria immitis
    • **heartworm dermatitis**
    • 2. Cuterebra maculata & C. palpebra 
    • 3. Cochliomyia hominivorax
  217. Nematode of the Kidney:
    Family - ________.
    Genus/species - __________.
    Nickname - _________.
    • Family: Dioctophymatoidea
    • Genus/species: Dioctophyma renale
    • Nickname: Giant kidney worm
  218. Nematode of the Urinary Bladder:
    Family – Trichuroidea
    Genus/species - _______
    Type of egg - ________
    Found exclusively in the mucosa of the:
    • Genus/species: Pearsonema (Eucoleus) plica
    • Type of egg: bipolar
    • Found exclusively in the mucosa of the: bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.
  219. Nematode of the Eye:
    1.Family - Filariodea
       Genus/species - _________.
    2. Family - Thelazioidea
       Genus/species - _________. (dog)
    • - Dirofilaria immitus
    • - Thelazia californiensis
  220. Insects of the Skin and Hair belonging to the:
    1. Family – Anoplura
    Genus/species - ________.
    2. Family Mallophaga
    Genus/species - ________.
                                ________.
    3. Family - Siphonaptera
    Genus/species: ________. (dog)
                               ________. (cat)
                               ________. (human)
    • 1. Linognathus setosus
    • 2. Trichodectes canis; Heterodoxus spiniger
    • 3. Ctenocephalides felis; C. canis; Pulex irritans
  221. Arachnids of Skin and Hair:
    Suborder – Metastigmata (ticks)
    Family – Ixodidae
    Genus/species - _________.
                                _________.
                                _________.
    • - Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    • - Dermacentor variabilis
    • - Dermacentor andersoni
  222. Skin Arachnids of the Suborder – Astigmata (mites) without a breathing pore belong to the
    1. Family – Sarcoptidae
    Genus/species - _________.
                                _________.
    2. Family - Psoroptidae
    Genus/species - _________.
    • 1. Sarcoptes scabiei (dog)
    •     Notoedres cati (cat)
    • 2. Otodectes cynotis
  223. Skin Arachnids of Suborder – Prostigmata (mites) belonging to the:
    1. Genus/species - ________.
    2. Genus/species - ________.
    • 1. Demodex canis - "Red mite"
    • 2. Cheyletiella yasguri – "Walking dandruff"
  224. Nematode Larvae of the Skin:
    Family – Rhabditoidea
    Genus/species - _________.
    Pelodera strongyloides - these do not penetrate the skin, but live on the epidermis. These live in the skin.
  225. 1. What is the most common of the protozoans that infect the red blood cells?
    2. What are 2 etiological agents?
    3. What are commonly seen in the blood work?
    • 1. Haemobartonella
    • 2.  - Mycoplasma haemofelis 
    •        (Haemobartonella felis) - commonly
    •        causes “Feline Infectious Anemia” (FIA).
    •      - Haemobartonella canis - common in Splenectomies
    • 3. Howell Jolly Bodies (denatured nucleus).
  226. List 6 Blood Cell Parasites found in the Canine:
    • 1. Babesia canis
    • 2. Ehrlichia canis 
    • 3. Hepatozoon canis – Only other parasite besides Ehrlichia to appear in the WBC. 
    • 4. Histoplasma capsulatum 
    • 5. Haemobartonella canis  – Most Common
    •                                       occuring T. cruzi.
    • 6. Trypanosoma cruzi – in humans - Chagas disease.
  227. T. cruzi is a hemoflagellate zoonotic disease, known as ______, AKA ______. There are many forms of transmission from feces of “______” (like Stomoxys calcitrans) to insect bite wounds. Signs in humans include ______ and ______.
    • - Chagas Disease
    • - American Trypanosomiasis
    • - Kissing bugs
    • - Heart failure
    • - Intestinal complications.
  228. 1. What is the Blood Cell Parasite found in the cat?
    2. What is a condition that is caused by this parasite?
    • 1. Mycoplasma haemofelis
    • 2. Infectious Feline
    • Anemia
  229. 5 Blood Cell Parasites found in Bovine:
    • 1. Anaplasmosis - Anaplasma marginale (malignant and common); A. centrale (self-limiting); A. ovis.
    • 2. Babesia bigemina – Texas Cattle Fever
    • 3. Eperythrozoon wenyoni – mild anemia & non life-threatening; Often found with anaplasmosis, or babesia.
    • 4. Theileria mutans 
    • 5. Trypanosoma theileri – intracellular in occurrence.
  230. What is a Blood Cell Parasite found in Porcine?
    Eperythrozoon suis – known as “Epi”, this is a ring like structure located in the erythrocyte (RBC).

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview