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- area that comanche's controlled
- comanche Split apart from the shoshone tribe on the upper platte river
- most struggling and poorert of NA's
- life for them changed after acquiring the horse
- mastered riding, fighting and raiding with horses - basically mounted warriors who gained their prestige through this
- comanche developed subgroups: Yamparikas, Jupes, and Kotsotekas from this splintered off the Tenewas, Penatekas, Kwahadis.
- kwahadi's considered most aggressive and skilled group
- a Social and Political Organization emerged from a Nemenakhani (extended family groups)
- society was Patrilineal & patrilocal
- each camp was presided over by 2 males: a chief: older male with no authoritarian power, agrees by consensus and a war chief: a young man; power only lasting as long as people would listen; power cycles in/out
- each major tribe was preceded over a Paraibo (elder without prestige)
- comanche come together periodically near the Wichita Mts.
- at these gatherings this is where political business is carried out.
- comanche made rock art that could be found in the caprock escarpment
- named by the spanish
- comanche means "people who keep fighting us"
- originally called themselves nemene "our people"
- they drove out the apache's and spanish
Fort Parker Massacre (May 19th 1836)
- John parker moved his family onto the plains under the impression that it was ok because of their interaction with other native american groups not knowing that it was actually that the comanche presided
- the parkers were approached by hundreds of comanche on may 19th
- john and cylis parker tried to stall while everyone else escaped.
- some were killed, while others escaped
- sisters Rachel Plummer (ransomed out) and Cynthia Ann Parker (assimilated) were kidnapped
cynthia ann parker
- was assimilated into kwahadi's
- she was discovered at the battle of pease river by the american calvary
- Peta Nocona was the war chief over this camp who was killed
- cynthia ann was in possession of a child named prairie flower
- Lawrence Sullivan Ross brought her back to her family, in which she did not want to go and wanted to remain comanche
- her two sons escaped one being Quanah Parker
- cynthia ann was locked up by her family
- her daughter dies and shortly after she does too.