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smallpox and comanche
- Smallpox decimated many Comanche bands results in intensified raids and captivity
- common to ransomcaptives back to settlers
- Comanche also often adopted young individuals who could be assimilated to a Comanche way of life.
- Mexican War of Independence (1821)
- Texas Rangers (1823, formally in 1835)
- Indian Removal Act (1830)
- Texas Declaration of Independence (1836)
- Indian Territory
- Trail of Tears (1830-1838)
- Comanche Policies change from a system of slavery to ransoming
- Asiento Slave System (1543-1834): based on written legal contract for the trade of slaves. comanche involved with this but spanish were reluctant to buy white slaves. this practice for them dwindled and started using their captives for ransom
- some famous Captives: Herman Lehman, Cynthia Ann Parker, Adolph Korn, Clifton Smith.
- Annexation of Texas (1845)
- Mexican-American War (1846-1847)
The Texas Rangers
- Founded in 1823 by Stephen Austin to
- protect 600 settlers who had moved to the area in the wake of the Mexican War of Independence.
- Originally composed of 10 men
- established to protect settlers from Indian raids and harassment.
- Robert McAlpin Williamson was first Major
- their primary role, and the reason for their founding, was to wage war against Native American groups on the plains.
The Council House Fight and a Declaration of War
- Originally proposed as a treaty to sue for peace along the frontier and negotiate for captives
- Chief Muguara brought Matilda Lockhart who was captive that was tortured
- sparked outrage from the council demanding that all western captives be released
- this broke out into a fight
- In response the the Great Raid was led by Chief (Buffalo Hump) included 3000 mounted warriors declaring war against Texas
- a few warriors branched out and burned linville to the ground ransacking their money and so the texas rangers were able to regain the loot.
The Antelope Hills Expedition
- all out war between the indians and settlers
- John Salmon “RIP” Ford was a distinguised commander that was put in charge of the Antelope Hills Expedition striving to give the comanche's a dose of their own medicine
- he recruits Tonkawa indian scouts to help track the comanche
- he kills women, children, and the most vulnerable moving in towards the heart of comanche territory
- in the Battle of Little Robe Creek Iron Jacket- Po-hebitsquash (d.1858) was a successful war chief who met his end.
- coincidentally he is Peta Nacona's father
- 0.50 Caliber Sharp’s Rifle - able to penetrate shields
- Colt-Paterson Revolver
- adarga- calvary shield