Organic Chemistry- Week 1

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chiroclown
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30265
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Organic Chemistry- Week 1
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2010-08-19 01:42:46
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OChem Week
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Notes for OChem Week 1 test
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  1. Group 1A
    • Alkali Metals
    • Ionic Bond with Group 7A
  2. Group 2A
    • Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Ionic Bond with 8A
  3. Periodic Table Trend for Atom Size
    • Smaller across a group
    • Larger down periods

    Parrot Shape
  4. Staircase elements
    • Metaloids
    • All elements ON stair case and GE and SB
    • Metals to Left
    • Non Metals to Right
  5. Period
    • Up and Down
    • # of Electrons in outermost shell
  6. Group
    • Left to Righ
    • # of Rings on Atom
  7. Types of Bonds
    • Metallic
    • Ionic (1A with 7A and 2A with 6A)
    • Covalent
  8. Otet Rule
    All elements seeking 8 electrons in outermost shell
  9. How to find the number of Neutrons (N)
    A-Z=N
  10. Mass Number
    • Protons + Neutrons
    • A
    • Bottom Number
  11. Atomic Number
    • Protons
    • Z
    • Top Number
  12. Constructive
    Opposites Attract
  13. Destructive
    Likes Repell
  14. Radioactive Elements
    • Unstable Nucleus
    • 84 and higher
  15. Duet Rule
    • HE and H seek duet rule
    • HE has 2 electrons- doesn't have to bond.
  16. New Hampshire Cops
    NH COPS
    • Nitrogen
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Phospherous
    • Sulfur
  17. Sulfur bonds
    2 bonds and 2 lone pair
  18. Nitrogen Bonds
    3 bonds and 1 lone pair
  19. Phosphorus
    • Expanded Otet
    • Surrounded by 10
  20. Expanded Otet Rule
    Groups 3, 4,5 participate in expanded Otet rule
  21. Hydrogen Bonds
    • 1 Bond
    • Bonds with anyone
  22. Carbon Bond
    • 4 bonds
    • Can be double or triple but must be 4 bonds
  23. Oxygen Bonds
    2 bonds and 2 lone pair
  24. Coordinate Covalent Bond
    An Element brings both valence electrons to create the bonds
  25. Cation
    • Positively charged
    • Loss of electron
    • Smaller than original atom
  26. Anion
    • Negatively charged
    • Gains an Electron
    • Larger than original atom
  27. Isotope
    • Same Atomic Number as original (Top Number)
    • Same amount of protons and electrons
    • The Neutron Varies
  28. Ionization Energy
    • IE
    • Amount of energy required to take away an electron
    • Smaller size = more difficult to take electron
    • larger size= less difficult to take an electron
    • IE+EA/2
  29. Size is Directly Related to
    • Chemical Reactivity
    • Metallic Character
  30. Size is indirectly related to
    • Ionization Energy (IE)
    • Electron Affinity (EA)
    • Electronegativity (EN)
    • Melting Point (MP)
    • Boiling Point (BP)
    • Oxide acidity
  31. Electronegativity
    Ability of an atom to attract a shared electron in a covalent bond
  32. Covalent Non Polar
    Change in Energy is = or < .4
  33. Polar
    Between .4 and 1.7
  34. Alitropes
    • Pure atoms in different configurations
    • tendancy towards alternate
  35. Acid
    • H+
    • More metallic with ionic bond with 0
    • ANML= Acid Non Metal or Less
  36. Base
    • OH-
    • Less metallic
    • BOM
    • Basic Oxide Metal
  37. Non Metal Bond
    Covalant
  38. Metal Bond
    Ionic
  39. Alkanes
    • Pure Hydrocarbons
    • Carbons have single bond
    • CnH2n+2
  40. Questions to determine Alkanes
    • Is it only C and H?
    • Are the carbons single bonds?
    • Does the formula work? CnH2n+2
  41. Stand on the Carbon, Don't Count It.
    Count the Carbons directly bonded to you
  42. Ending for Alcohol Groups
    • OL
    • C-O-H
    • alCOHol
  43. Ending for Alkane Groups
    ANE
  44. Iso
    • wing
    • coutn the # of carbons attached to wing
  45. Adding 1 carbon increases BP by about
    20 to 30 degrees
  46. Boiling Points are dependent on 4 things
    • 1. Molecular Weight
    • 2. Shape
    • 3. Polarity
    • 4. Presence or Asence of Hydrogen Bonding
  47. Isomers
    Same chemical formula but different structural formula
  48. Boiling Point relationships with Isomers
    • The more branches, the lower the boiling point (more spread out)
    • Straight Chain= higher BP (stronger neighbor to neighbor bonding)
    • Branching= weaker BP (weaker neighbor to neighbor bonding)
  49. Aldahide ending
    • AL
    • O
    • ll
    • C-H
  50. Carbon is always partially
    Positive
  51. Aldahides and Oic Oxides are always located on
    • Carbon #1
    • No need to write the #
  52. Hydrogen always bonds with
    • FON
    • Flouride
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Inordinately higher BP
  53. Carbonyl Carbon
    • O
    • ll
    • C
    • O is partially neg
    • C is partially pos
  54. Oic Acid
    • O
    • ll
    • C-OH
  55. Water can form
    4 Hydrogen Bonds in pure liquid
  56. Carboxlic Acids can create
    5 bonds with Hydrogen in pure liquid
  57. Alcohol can form
    3 bonds with Hydrogen in pure liquid
  58. Alkanes' density is less than 1 so
    float on water
  59. Synthesis of Alkanes
    • CAR
    • Corey-House REaction
    • Addition of Hydrogen Gas
    • Reduction of Haloalkanes
  60. Alkene
    Pure Hydrogen carbon with AT LEAST 1 double bond with a carbon
  61. Heterolitic Cleavage
    bond is broken and one side gets all, the other nothing.
  62. Homolithic Cleavage
    Bond is broken and all leave with what they brought.
  63. Chlorine side groups
    Chlorine goes to Chloro
  64. R- attacking species
    • R- anything that is hydrocarbon where an H is lost.
    • The Carbon is missing 1 of 4 bonds
    • R- attacks water and takes on H and creates alkane
  65. Synthesis of Cyclo Alkanes
    • Ring Structure
    • Must have a haloalkane at both ends of the alkane (CL)
  66. Corey House
    • R- is a carbon without a bond and looking for something
    • Attacks halo alkine b/c it is partially positive and it will lengthen the chain..
  67. Wurtz Reaction
    Attacks the cycloalkane
  68. Formula for Cycloalkane
    CnH2n
  69. All cycloalkanes have a density less than 1
    All cycloalkanes float on top of water
  70. Cis
    Side groups on same side (top vs bottom)
  71. Trans
    Side groups are on opposite sides (top vs. bottom)
  72. Conformers
    When you can go from one shape to another without breaking bonds
  73. Molecules are most stable when
    the large groups are as far from each other as possible
  74. Angles found in most stable carbon
    109.5
  75. Chair Conformer
    • More stable than Boat
    • Created through puckering ot reach 109.5
    • CycloHEXanes
  76. Boat Conformer
    • Less stable than Chair
    • Created through puckering ot reach 109.5
    • CycloHEXanes
  77. Cyclopentane Stability
    • Stable on its own
    • Can rest flat
  78. CHP
    • Reactions of Alkanes
    • Combustion
    • Halogenation
    • Pyrolysis
  79. Speed of Creation
    Terciary>secondary>primary>less than one
  80. The faster the molecule is formed
    The more stable it is
  81. Atomic Properties
    • AIEE
    • Atomic Size
    • Electronegativity
    • Ioniztion Energy
    • Electron Confituration
  82. Naming Organic Compounds
    • 1. Identify the functional group of the compound
    • 2. Count th enumber of carbons of the longest continous chain containing the functional group
    • 3. Put the longest continuous chain containing the functional group in a box. With the excecption of hydrogens, anything outside the box is a side chain and should be circled.
    • 4. Name the chain determined in step 2 and locate the functional group's position by using lowest number.
    • 5. Write side groups with their numbers, arrange alphabetically and check for commas, dashes, etc.
  83. Corey House REaction
    • Alkyl Halides iwth organometallic compound
    • Gilman Reagent
  84. Addition of Hydrogen Gas
    H2 to Alkenes using: Heat, Ni, Pt or Pd
  85. Reduction of Haloalkanes
    • Reduction by a metal (Zn) and an acid (H+)
    • Gringard Reagent R-Mgcl attacks water to extract H+
  86. Combustion
    CnH2n+2 + (n+n+1(n+1 is divided by 2))O2 ------> (n) CO2g+(n+1)H2Og+ Engergy
  87. In Free Radical Reactions, there are 3 steps
    • 1. Initiation
    • 2. Propagation
    • 3. Termination
  88. Pyrolysis of Alkanes
    • Cracking of Alkanes
    • Steam
    • Hdryo
    • Catalytic
    • Catalytic reforming
  89. The Boiling Point of cycloalkanes are higher
    than corresponding straight chain alkanes
  90. Steric Strain
    • Large groups next to one another
    • Strong attraction or Repel
  91. Angle Strain
    • In cycloalkanes, the carbons would like to be at 109.5 degrees
    • The greater the difference, the greater the strain
  92. Torsional Strain
    The more adjacent carbons in the eclipsed formation, the greater the strain
  93. Ionization Energy Table Trend
    • Larger across
    • Smaller down
  94. Electronegativity Table Trend
    • Larger across
    • Smaller down
  95. Oxide Acidity
    • Larger across
    • Smaller down

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