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2015-05-13 16:23:59
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  1. pyloric glands
    contain G cells that secrete gastrin, whcih induces parietal cells to secrete more HCl and signals the stomact to contract and mix its content
  2. What does the presence of chyme cause?
    causes brush border enzymes to secrete disaccharidases 

    duodenum secretes enteropeptidase, whcih activtes trypsin
  3. secretin
    peptide hormone that causes pancreatic enzymes to be released into the duodenum

    regulates the pH of the digestive tract by reducing HCl secretion 

    it is an enterogastrone (hormone that slows motility through the digestive tract)
  4. CCK
    stimulates secretion of bile
  5. Where else beside the mouth are fats digested?
    small intestine with pancreatic lipase
  6. bilirubin
    major pigment of bile 

    travels to the liver, where it is conjugated and secreted into the bile for excretion
  7. Process of amino acids and carbos through small intestine.
    secondary active transport and facilitated diffusion into the epithelial cells lining the small intestine; they then move across the epithelial cells into the intestinal capillaries; a concentrationg radient then lalows simple carbs and amino acids to diffuse into capillaries
  8. cecum
    an outpocketing that accepts fluid exiting hte small intestine through the ileocecal valve and is the site of the appendix
  9. Bowman's capsule
    cuplike structure surrounding the nephron
  10. micturition reflex
    relaxation of the urethral sphincter in response to increased pressure in the bladder
  11. Where is hydrostatic pressure higher, glomerululs or Bowman's capsule?
  12. What does the liver do to ammonia?
    converts it to urea
  13. Reabsorption
    reuptake for use in the bod
  14. Explain a tip for the kidney structure.
    segments that are horizontal are focused ont eh the identity of teh particles (keep what is needed; lose what is not)

    vertical: focused on volume adn concentratoin
  15. proximal convoluted tubule
    amino acids, glucose, water-soluble, vitamins,and salts are reabsorbed along with water

    70% reabsorbed

    site of secretion for a number of waste products, including hydrogen ions, potassium, ammonia, and urea
  16. descending limb of the loop of Henle
    permeable only to water adn the medulla has an ever increasing osmolarity
  17. ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    change in permeability; only permeable to salts and not water

    increasing amounts are removed as it travels up

    thicker diluting segment (cells lining the tube are larger)
  18. Explain the diluting segment
    cells are larger; contain large amounts of mitochondria, which allow reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- by active transport
  19. Distal convoluted tuule
    responds to aldosterone, which promoes sodium reabsorption

    sodium ions are osmotically active particles so water will follow, concentating the urine
  20. collecting duct
    responsive to aldosterone and ADH

    permeability increases--> water reabsorption
  21. What are the functions of the kidneys?
    control BP, blood osmolarity, and acid-base balance
  22. What does aldosterone work on?
    distal CT

    collecting duct
  23. What does ADH work on?
    alters permeability of collecting duct directly, allowing more water to be reabsorbed by making the cell junctions of the duct leaky
  24. dermis
    papillary layer

    reticular layer
  25. Merkel cells
    sensory cells present at the epidermal-dermal junction; connected to sensory neurons and are responsible for deep pressure and texture sensation within the skin
  26. Meissner's corpuscles
    respond to light touch
  27. Ruffini endings
    respond to stretch
  28. Pacinian corpuscles
    respond to deep pressure and vibration
  29. arector pili
    muscles that contract in cold conditions causing hair to stand up
  30. What does cardiac muscle have?
    gap junctions that allow for flow of ions directly between cells

    this allows for coordinated muscle cell depolarization and efficient contraction of cardiac muscle

    gap junctions allow for progressive depolarization to spread via ion flow across the gap junctions between cells
  31. I band
    contains mostly thin flimaents
  32. A-band
    contains the thick filaments in their entirety, including any overlap with think filaments
  33. H zone
    contains only thick filaments
  34. Explain muscle contraction
    • contraction starts at the neuromuscular junction, where the NS communicates with motor neurons
    • The signal travels down neuron until it reaches the nerve teerminal, where acetylcholine is released into the synapse

    acetylcholine binds to receptors on the sarcolemma, causing depolarization
  35. Troponin and tropomyosin
    calcium binds to troponin, causing a change in conformaiton of tropomyosin, allowing exposure of myosin binding sites
  36. ATP bound to myosin causes what?
    release of myosin from actin
  37. frequency summation
    if a muscle fiber is exposed to frequent and prolonged summation, it will have insufficient time to relax; the contractions combine, become stronger and more prolonged
  38. fast twitch muscles form of energy?
    have less mitochondria and rely on glycolysis and fermentation to make ATP under most circumstances
  39. long bones
    cyclindrical shafts called diaphyses that swell at each end to form metaphyses and that terminate in epiphyses
  40. epiphyses
    se spongy cores for more effective dispersion of force andpressure at joins; at internal edge is an epiphyseal growth plate, which is a cartilaginous structure and the site of longitudinal growth
  41. Synovium
    a laer of soft tissue that secretes synovial fluid, which lubricates the movement of structures in the joint space
  42. flexor
    muscle that decreases the angle across a joint
  43. extensor
    increases or straightens this angle
  44. abductor
    moves a part of the body away from teh midline
  45. adductor
    moves part of body toward midline
  46. penetrance
    population measure defined as the proportion of individuals in the population carrying the allele who actually express the phenotype
  47. full penetrance
    when 100% of individuals with the allele show symptoms
  48. high penetrance
    most but not all show symptoms of the disease
  49. expressivity
    varying phenotypes despite identical genotypes
  50. If expressivity is constant, then what?
    all individuals with a given genotype express the same phenotype
  51. Mendel's first law
    genes exist in alternative forms called alleles

    an organism has two alleles for each gene, one inherited from each parent

    the two alleles segregate during meiosis, resuting in gametes that carry only one allele for any inherited trait

    if two alleles are different, one is fully expressed and the other is silent
  52. duplication mutations
    occur when a segment of DNA is copied multiple times in the genome
  53. inversion mutations
    occur when a segment of DNA is reversed within the chromosome
  54. insertion mutations
    occur when a segment of DNA is moved from one chromosome to another; small insertion mutations are considered frameshift mutations
  55. translocation mutations
    occur when a segment of DNA from one chromosome is swapped with a segment from another
  56. genetic leakage
    • flow of genes between species
    • individuals from different species can mate to produce hybrid offspring, which can't reproduce
  57. founder effect
    extreme case of genetic drift in which a small population of a species finds itself in reproductive isolation from other populations as a result of natural barriers, catastrophes, or other bottleneks that drastically and suddenly reduce the size of the population available for breeding
  58. genetic drift
    changes in the composition of the gene pool due to chance
  59. inbreeding depression
    loss of genetic variation that may cause reduced fitness of the population
  60. outbreeding/ outcrossing
    intro of unrelated individuals into a breeding group
  61. bottleneck effect
    The bottleneck effect is a sharp lowering of a population's gene pool because of an environmental, or human-caused, change
  62. recombination frequency
    the likelihood that two alleles are separated from each other during crossing over

    roughly proportional to the distance between the genes on the chromosome
  63. allele frequency
    how often an allele appears in a populaiton

    ex: if 75 alleles were dominate out of 100, there is a .75 frequency
  64. Wat criteria must be met for the gene pool to be stable and evolution to not be occurring?
    population is very large (no genetic drift)

    no mutations

    mating is random

    no migration of individuals into or out of the population

    genes are equally successful at reproducing
  65. modern synthesis model
    adds knowledge of genetic inheritance and changes in the gene pool to Darwin's original heory
  66. inclusive fitness
    measure of an organism's success in teh population

    altruism is a component of inclusive fitnesss that is helping others because it will increase your sucess
  67. punctuated equilibrium
    suggests that changes in some species occur in rapid bursts rather than evenly over ime
  68. stablilizing selection
    keeps phenotypes within a specific range by selecting against extremes
  69. directional selection
    adaptive pressure can lead to the emergence and dominance of an initially extreme phenotype
  70. disruptive selection
    two extreme phenotypes are selected over the norm
  71. adaptive radiation
    related concept of dirsuptiv selection that describes the rapid rise of a number of differnt species from a common ancestor that enables animals to occupy certain niches
  72. prezygotic mechanisms include...
    • temporal isolation (breeding at different times)
    • ecological isolation
    • behavioral isolation (lack of attraction) 
    • gametic isolation (fertilization not possible)
  73. postzygotic mechanisms include...
    • hybrid inviability 
    • hybrid sterility
    • hybrid breakdown