Parasitology lecture: Section 1 Intro & Nematodes of K9 and Feline

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Parasitology lecture: Section 1 Intro & Nematodes of K9 and Feline
2015-07-11 17:11:07

Section 1: Intro and nematodes of K9 and feline
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  1. Generally smaller organism that lives on or inside and at the expense of a larger animal
  2. Host expense dependent on what 3 things
    • Number of parasites
    • Kind and degree of injury that they inflict
    • Vigor and nourishment of the host
  3. Biological association in which one animal is transported by another animal
  4. 2 organisms which live together, neither bearing a parasite relation to the other but they both benefit
  5. 2 organisms living together with mutual advantageous association of 2 or more organisms
  6. Infestation with parasites
  7. 2 types of parasitism
    • Multiple parasitism 
    • Superparasitism
  8. Parasites of different species parasitize a single host
    Multiple parasitism
  9. Excessive parasites by the same species
  10. Ascariasis nickname
  11. Ancylostomiasis nickname
  12. Trichuriasis nickname
  13. Hookworms underneath the skin called
    Cutaneous larval migrans
  14. Cutaneous larval migrans name in humans
    Creeping eruption
  15. Ascarids in humans that migrate in the organs
    Visceral larval migrans
  16. 3 zoonotic diseases caused by parasites that are common
    • Cutaneous larval migrans
    • Visceral larval migrans 
    • Ringworm
  17. Parasite passage via milk
  18. Parasite passage via placenta
    • InUtero
    • Intrauterine
    • Transovarian
  19. Stage in development of the egg post cell, cleavage occurs here
  20. Stage after morula, larva is forming
    Vermiform embryo
  21. Anemia is...
    The reduction of RBC and/or hemoglobin concentration
  22. 2 types of anemia
    • Clinical anemia (parasites)
    • Aplastic anemia (cancer, bone marrow)
  23. Oviparous
    Lays eggs
  24. Viviparous
    • No egg stage 
    • EX: HW
  25. 3 communications in the body
    • Circulation 
    • Lymphatics
    • Nervous system
  26. Classification order
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • species
  27. Mickey mouse ears AKA
    Pine pollen
  28. Requires intermediate host (vector) generally an arthropod
    Indirect life cycle
  29. No intermediate host needed
    • Direct life cycle 
    • Parasites passed via urine, vomit, etc
  30. Brand/trade name for drug
    • Proprietary name 
    • EX: Tylenol, Pepto Bismol
  31. Generic name for drug
    • Non-proprietary name
    • EX: Acetominophin
  32. Organic formula for drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
    Chemical name
  33. A generic/equivalent drug by FDA approval must only be how much percent strength of the brand name drug
  34. Most likely has parasites if given this fecal score in adults
  35. Most likely has parasites if given this fecal score in puppies
  36. 2 common parasites seen with the unaided eye
    • Ascarids (roundworms)
    • Cestodes (tapeworms)
  37. Resemble spaghetti in feces
    Ascarids (roundworms)
  38. Resemble rice in feces
    Cestodes (tapeworms)
  39. HW first appeared in the united states when
    Hennepin county, Minnesota in 1937
  40. CAPC meaning
    Companion Animal Parasite Council
  41. What does the CAPC do?
    Made up of vets, LVTs, and health care professionals that create guidelines for optimal control of internal/external parasites that threaten health of humans and animals
  42. 6 basic CAPC recommendations
    • Physical exam
    • Preventatives soon after birth 
    • Treat yr round with broad spectrum HW
    • Provide cooked food and fresh H2O
    • Retest HW status annually
    • Fecals once or twice a year
  43. NCVP meaning
    National Center for Veterinary Parasitology
  44. Why does the NCVP and the CAPC recomend against slow treatment of HW?
    May revert some dogs to convert from positive to a false negative without getting rid of the HW
  45. Tests for parasites
    • Necropsy 
    • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • ELISA
    • Immunofluoescence
    • Centrifuge flotation 
    • Simple flotation
    • Direct smear
  46. New test for tapeworms
    Auburn developed test that detects tape proteins called the Sandwich ELISA, 70% effective
  47. Preferred drugs for tapeworms
  48. Flotation mediums
    • Zinc sulfate
    • Sodium nitrate
  49. SG of ascarids and ancylostoma
  50. SG of trichuris vulpis (whipworms)
  51. SG of Taenia (tapeworms)
  52. SG of Physaloptera (stomach worms)
  53. Most common worm parasite encountered
  54. If a puppy is born with Toxocara canis or Ancylostoma caninum when can they begin shedding eggs
    2-3 weeks of age
  55. Bayliascaris procyonis is found in which animals
    • Raccoon and viscerally migrate
    • Can also effect CNS in dogs
  56. Stages of egg development of nematodes
    • Cell
    • Morula
    • Vermiform embryo
    • Larval stages 1-5
  57. Ancylostomiasis AKA
  58. Ancylostomiasis family name
  59. 3 hookworms found in dogs
    • Ancylostoma caninum
    • Ancylostoma brazilienses 
    • Uncinaria stenocephalia
  60. Hookworm infection transmission
    • Skin penetration 
    • Oral-14 days before eggs pass in feces
    • Transmammary
    • Intrauterine
    • Mammalian intermediate host
  61. Hookworm infective stage
  62. 3 things hookworm disease depend on
    • Virulence of species of hookworms
    • Degree of exposure to infected larvae
    • Degree of resistant of the host
  63. Major signs of hookworm disease
    • Blood loss
    • GI irritation 
    • Dark tarry stool
    • Diarrhea
    • Anorexia with pale MM
    • Depression
    • Eggs found in feces not adults
    • Feeds on mucosa of SI causing bleeding
  64. Anemia appears with hookworms at first as...
    Normocytic and normochromic with development and iron deficiency anemia becomes more hypochromic and microcytic
  65. Prepatent period for hookworms
    14 days
  66. Most common hookworm in dogs
    Ancylostoma caninum
  67. Most common hookworm in cats
    Ancylostoma tubeaformae
  68. Taxonomy for Ancylostoma
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Order: Strongylida
    • Family: Ancylostomatidae
    • Genus: Ancylostoma
  69. Hookworm life cycle direct or indirect?
    Direct life cycle
  70. Primary means of transmission of hookworms in puppies
  71. Ancylostoma transmission to man
    Penetrates the skin causing cutaneous larval migrans known as creeping eruption
  72. Diagnosis of hookworms
    • Anemia
    • Eggs in feces
  73. Treatment of hookworms
    • Panacur
    • Drontal Plus
    • Interceptor
    • Sentinel
  74. Control of hookworms
    • Deworm, specially before breeding
    • Preventatives
    • Prevent lawn/run contamination 
    • Treat soil with salt and boiling water or sodium borate
  75. Life cycle of Ancylostoma caninum
    • Dog consumes S3 larvae or it penetrates skin
    • Larvae matures in SI and feeds
    • Mature worms copulate and produce eggs
    • -2 weeks after if consumed
    • -4 weeks after if skin penetration
    • Eggs passed in feces and hatch in 2-8 days
  76. Once S3 has passed to small intestines 2 avenues the hookworm can take...
    • 1) Larvae may mature to an adult
    • 2) May penetrate intestine wall and migrate through tissues and encyst within skeletal muscle or gut wall and become dormant. Can be activated by hormones during pregnancy and migrate to SI or infest the fetus, this is known as Larval Leak Syndrome
  77. Ascariasis AKA
  78. 3 common ascarids
    • Toxocara canis (dog)
    • Toxocara cati/mystax (cat)
    • Toxascaris leonina (dog and cat)
  79. Ascarid taxonomy
    • Order: Ascarida
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Family: Ascaridoidea
    • Genus: Toxocara, Toxascaris, Physaloptera and Baylisaascaris
  80. Non definitive host different name
    Aberrant host
  81. Transmission of ascarids
    • Consumption of eggs
    • S2 infective stage consumption
    • Transplacental
    • Transmammary
    • Predation of paratenic host
  82. Is roundworm life cycle direct or indirect?
    • Direct in dog/cat
    • Can can indirect in other species
  83. Life cycle of ascarids
    • Dog consumes S2 larvae
    • Larvae penetrates stomach and enters hepatic portal circulation
    • Migrates through liver cells
    • Larvae enters posterior vena cava and goes to lungs
    • Larvae migrates up trachea to pharynx where its swallowed
    • Molts in stomach to S3 and goes to SI to molt twice and reproduce
  84. Ascarids undergo what migration?
    Tracheal migration
  85. Ascarids can be passed inutero from bitch to puppy by...
    S2 larvae. Infected pups can have S3 in lungs when born and molt from S3 to S4 during first week of life. S4 present in intestinal tract at 3 days after birth
  86. Prepatent period for ascarids
    21 days
  87. If ascarids dont undergo tracheal migration and become dormant in the muscle and a bitch becomes pregnant then...
    Larvae become activated and migrate to placenta and into lungs of the pups or to the mammary glands where they are shed in the milk
  88. Do Toxascaris migrate?
    No dont migrate away from intestines, deworming needed only once with ivermectin 1/4 mL/40lbs
  89. Larval leak syndrome can occur with which parasites?
    Hookworms and roundworms
  90. 3 forms of Ascarids and Ancylostoma not in egg form
    • Adult
    • Visceral migrating larvae
    • Encysted larval form
  91. Treatment for ascarids
    2 dewormings 2 weeks apart
  92. Signs of ascarid infection in puppies
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Constipation/obstipation
  93. Signs of ascarid infection in adults
    • GI upset
    • Respiratory disorders
    • Pot belly
    • Dull hair coat
  94. Ascarid primary transmission
  95. Ancylostoma primary transmission
  96. Control of ascarids
    • Screen and deworm before breeding
    • Keep puppies in enclosure and remove feces
    • Screen puppies at 4 and 8 weeks
  97. When ascarids enter a non definitive host it takes strange routes such as
    • Visceral larval migrans- travel in liver
    • Ocular larval migrans- travel in eye
  98. Toxocara cati differs from T. canis in one way
    Transmammary is primary mean of transmission not transplacental
  99. Toxascaris leonina facts
    • Doesnt visceral migrate
    • Mucosal migration with S2 and S3 molts in mucosa wall and S4 enters lumen of gut to mature
    • Prepatent period 10 weeks
    • Deworm once because it doesnt migrate viscerally
  100. Transmission of Toxascaris leonina
    • Ingestion of eggs
    • Ingestion of the parentenic host
  101. Life cycle of Toxascaris leonina
    • Ingest eggs
    • Hatch
    • Molt
    • Mature to adult 
    • All occurs in the intestinal tract
  102. Baylisascaris procyonis
    • Ascarid of racoons
    • Can cause CNS issues and death in children due to the CNS migration
  103. Trichuriasis nickname
  104. Most common trichuriasis
    • Trichuris vulpis- dog
    • Trichuris campanula- cat
    • Trichuris serrate- cat
    • Trichuris trichura- man/pig/monkeys
  105. Trichuris inhabits what part of the body?
    Cecum and embed in the mucosa
  106. Life cycle of trichuris
    • Eggs consumed and hatch and larval development occurs in jejunal wall (larvae incubate 1 month in egg) 
    • Adults move to cecum where they mature and reproduce in 12 weeks after ingestion
  107. Transmission of trichuris
    Directly consume eggs
  108. Prepatent period for trichuris
    3 months
  109. Trichuris caused irritation to cecum called what
    Flank sucking
  110. What kind of blood does trichuris cause?
    Bright red blood
  111. Does trichuris have a direct or indirect life cycle?
    Direct life cycle
  112. Symptoms of trichuris
    • Weight loss
    • Bright red blood in feces
    • Anemia
    • Abdominal pain 
    • Flatulence
  113. Treatment for trichuris
  114. Benzimendazoles
    • Parbendazole
    • Albendazole
    • Cambendazole
    • Thiabendazole
    • Fenbendazole
    • Mebendazole
    • Oxibendazole
    • Oxifendazole
  115. Strongyloides nickname
    Intestinal threadworm
  116. Strongyloides name in horses
  117. Taxonomy of strongyloides
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Order: Rhabditida
    • Family: Rhabdiasoidea
  118. Strongyloides live where?
    In decaying flesh, feces, dead plants
  119. Common strongyloides
    • Strongyloides stercoralis- dog
    • Strongyloides tumefaciens- cat
  120. Micronema sp in horses migrates how?
    Through CNS
  121. Where does strongyloides live in cats and dogs?
    Mucosa on the SI
  122. Why does strongyloides causes bright red blood?
    Rapid movement through the SI
  123. With strongyloides which are pathogenic?
    Females and eggs reproduce asexually
  124. 3 forms of strongyloides
    • Sexual male
    • Sexual female
    • Asexual and pathogenic female
  125. Life cycle of strongyloides
    • Male/female reproduce sexually while pathogenic female reproduces asexually 
    • Larvae not passed out in the feces can develop into infective females or non-infective males and females
    • After passing larvae will molt twice to infective S3
    • S3 may penetrate skin or be consumed
    • S3 larvae will migrate by circulation and lungs, going to the intestines as S4
    • S4 will molt to adult in upper SI
    • Progeny may shed in feces 7-20 days after infection
  126. Transmission of strongyloides
    • Oral
    • Penetration of skin
  127. Treatment of strongyloides
    Ivermectin orally or thiabendazole for 3 days
  128. What species cause dark tarry stool?
    • Ancylostoma 
    • Physaloptera
  129. Which species cause bright red blood?
    • Trichuris
    • Strongyloides
  130. Which species exit animal in S1 larval form?
    • Lungworms
    • Strongyloides
  131. Taxonomy of lungworms
    • Order: Nematoda
    • Phylum: Trichinellida
    • Family: Trichinelloidea
    • Genus: Eucoleus, Aelurostrongylus, Crenosoma, Oslerus, Filaroides
  132. Are lungworms oviparous?
  133. Common lungworms
    • Eucoleus aerophila- dog/fox can be direct or indirect life cycle using a earthworm
    • Eucoleus annulata- poultry crop worm
    • Eucoleus contorta- ducks
    • Aleurostrongylus abstrusus- cat indirect life cycle using molluscs
  134. Dogs infected with lungworms symptoms
    Coughing turning into pneumonia
  135. Cat infected lungworm symptoms
    Few signs, can be coughing, dyspnea, anorexia, fever, sneezing
  136. Lungworm with infective stage L1 and has no intermediate host
    • Oslerus osleri 
    • Filaroides hirthi
  137. Fox lungworm that occurs in the trachea and bronchi
    Crenosoma vulpis
  138. French heartworm that occurs in pulmonary arteries and right side of heart in dogs and wild cats
    Angiostrongylus vasorum
  139. Paragonimus kellicotti
    Trematode lungworm, natural host is the mink, eggs are coughed up and swallowed, passed in water and picked up by snail, crawfish eats snail, dog eats crawfish
  140. Intermediate host for lungworms
    • Eucoleus- can be an earthworm
    • Aleurostrongylus- molluscs
    • Paragonimus- crawfish
    • Filaroides- dont need one
  141. How to diagnose lungworms
    Baermann apparatus
  142. Treatment for lungworms
    Ivermectin 1/4 mL/40 lbs
  143. Esophageal worm
    Spirocerca lupi
  144. Where do spirocerca dwell?
    In nodules in esophagus, stomach or aortic wall of dogs
  145. What do spriocerca produce?
    Tumors in esophagus
  146. Symptoms of spirocerca
    • Vomiting
    • Dysphagia
    • Aortic aneurysm 
    • Secondary pulmonary osteoarthropathy
  147. Life cycle of Spriocerca lupi
    • Eggs deposited in feces
    • Eggs hatch after ingestion by coprophagic beetle
    • Larvae become infected and encyst in tracheal tubes of beetle 
    • Beetle ingested by parentenic host 
    • Paraentenic host consumed by dog, larvae liberated in stomach penetrating wall and then find their way via arterial system to the wall of the stomach and esophagus
  148. Prepatent period for spirocerca
    6 months
  149. Stomach worm
    • Physaloptera preputialis- cat
    • Physaloptera rara- dogs
  150. Physaloptera differs from ascarids in 5 ways
    • In stomach only
    • Shape of a "C"
    • Eggs almost always in vermiform embryo
    • Eggs are transparent
    • Feed on mucosa causing dark bleeding
  151. Physaloptera life cycle
    • Indirect (beetles) 
    • Adults attach to mucosa of stomach causing rupture of blood that appears dark
    • Eggs pass out in feces
  152. Eyeworm
    Thelazia californiensis
  153. Thelazia occurs in which species?
    Dogs, cats, sheep, deer and cattle
  154. Where does Thelazia occur?
    Conjunctival sac
  155. Mechanical vectors for Thelazia
    Musca domestica (house fly) and Musca autumnalis (face fly)
  156. Other eyeworms
    • Thelazia lacrymalis- cattle/horse
    • Thelazia skrjabini- cattle/horse
    • Thelazia gulosa- cattle