Kram's definitions

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Kram's definitions
2015-05-15 08:16:21
definitions MCP Krams Cells processes

MCP Kram's side
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  1. Describe the structure of DNA
    • Phosphoric acid and deoxyribose sugar form backbone of DNA. An organic base of ACG or T is added. Draw a diagram of a phosphate with a 5' position after it and a 3' position before the sugar. 
    • 10 base pairs per turn. 2 chains held together by hydrogen bonds. Chains run in opp polarity. Bases point in. flat planes perp to axis of helix.
  2. What is a nucleotide
    DNA backbone with one base
  3. What are the 4 bases and how do they bind
    Adenine(purine), cytosine(pyrimi.), guanine(purine), Thymine(pyrimidine)
  4. What is a histone
    Proteins that wrap round DNA twice. Proteins that coil and fold  chromosome molecule into a condensed state. It is the core of the nucleosome.
  5. What is Chromatin
    Chromatin is a series of nucleosome’s. Exist in interphase only.
  6. What is a nucleosome
    An octamer histone plus the linker DNA of 147 bp.
  7. What are telomeres
    • Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the termini of linear chromosomes of most eukaryotic organisms.
    • Telomeres compensate for incomplete semi-conservative DNA replication at chromosomal ends.
  8. What are chromosomes
    Highest level of packaged DNA. Chromosomes appear during cell division
  9. What is transcription
    Transcription is the formation of RNA from DNA under the influence of RNA-polymerase.
  10. What is translation
    Translation is the formation of peptide from mRNA in the ribosome.
  11. What is endoplasmic reticulum
    • Network of membranes extending envelope and is found spread to much of the cell.
    • RER is rough because of ribosomes
    • RER is flattened sheets.
    • SER is more tubular.
    • Space between sheets and inner tubes = ER matrix.
    • SER = extension of RER