EXTRA CHEM

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DesLee26
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302749
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EXTRA CHEM
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2015-05-14 21:53:41
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MCAT
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MCAT
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  1. Planck reaction
    E=hf
  2. angular momentum
    L=nh/2pi
  3. Electromagnetic energy
    E=hc/wavelength
  4. Pauli exclusion principle
    no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers
  5. principal quantum number
    n
  6. azimuthal quantum number
    n-1
  7. maximum number of electrons within a shell
    2n^2
  8. magnetic quantum number
    -l to l
  9. Aufbau principle
    filling from lower to higher subshells
  10. Hund's rule
    within a given subshell, oribital sare filled such that there are a max number of half filled orbitals with parallel spins
  11. paramagnetic
    materials composed of atoms with unpaired electrons will orient their spins in alignment with a magnetic field, and the material will thus be weakly attracted to the magnetic field
  12. diamagnetic
    materials consisting of atoms that have all paired electrons will be slightly repelled by a magnetic field
  13. effective nuclear charge
    • measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons
    • (increases from left to right)
  14. atomic radius
    1/2 the distance between the centers of two atoms of an element that are briefly in contact with one another

    decreases from left to right
  15. ionic radius
    distance from center of the nucleus to edge of its electron cloud
  16. ionization energy
    energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species

    increases from left to right and from bottom to top
  17. electron affinity
    energy distance by a gaseous species when it gains an electron

    increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom
  18. relationship between bond length and strength
    inverse

    longest are weakest (single)

    shortest are strongest (triple)
  19. normality
    measure of concentration of [H] or [OH[
  20. double displacement
    metathesis
  21. Hypochlorite
    ClO-
  22. Chlorite
    ClO2-
  23. Arrhenius equation
    k=Ae^(-Ea/RT)

    • Ea is the activation energy
    • R is the ideal gas constant
  24. exergonic v. endergonic
    energy given off

    energy absorbed
  25. zero reaction order graphs
    k=-slope 

    linear line going down
  26. kinetics of a first order reaction
    curved line downward

    the ln is a straight line where k=-slope
  27. kinetics of a second order reaction
    large curved line down

    ln graph is a straight line going up where k=slope
  28. equlibrium onstnat
    concentration of products over the concentration over reactants

    Keq or Kc
  29. Keq
    Kf/Kr

    k forward / k reverse
  30. Q < Keq
    there is a greater concentraiton of reactants; the forward reaction will proceed
  31. Q= keq
    reaction in equilibrium
  32. Q > Keq
    there are more products; the reaction is reverse
  33. Change in Pressure and Volume on a Reaction
    only gaseous species are affected

    increase in pressure causes a decrease in the moles of gas; shift away
  34. ammonia
    NH3
  35. thermodynamic product
    product formed at higher temperatures
  36. isolated system
    no exchange of heat, work, nor matter
  37. closed system
    can exchange energy (heat and work) but no matter
  38. isothermal
    contant temperature

    internal energy is zero; Q=W
  39. adiabatic
    no heat is exchanged between the system and its environment

    dU= -W
  40. isobaric
    pressure is constant

    pressure is constant; nothing changes because volume is the same
  41. isovolumetric (isochoric)
    no change in volume= no work 

    dU=Q
  42. process functions
    describe pathway taken from one equilibrium state to another

    Work and Heat (W and Q)
  43. STP
    • 1 atm
    • 273 K
  44. Standard conditions
    • 298 K
    • 1 atm
    • 1 M
  45. boiling point
    tempearture at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressur
  46. relationship between vapor pressure and temperature
    as temp increases, so too does VP
  47. gas to a solid
    deposition
  48. enthalpy is equivalent to __
    heat under constant pressure
  49. enthalpy/ heat of vaporization
    q=mL, 

    where L is the latent heat to describe the isothermal process; Latent heat is another term for enthalpy
  50. quantity of heat required to raise the temp of something
    q=mcdT
  51. enthalpy calculation
    dHrxn= Hproducts- Hreactants
  52. Hess's law
    enthalpy changes are additive
  53. Breaking bonds is
    a. endothermic
    b. exothermic
    endothermic
  54. another enthalpy calculation
    dH(rxn)= H(bonds broken)-(bonds formed)
  55. entropy calculation
    dS=Q(rev)/T

    Qrev= heat gained or lost in a reversible reaction
  56. What conditions make dG spontaneous and nonspontaneous?
    + dH and + dS is spontaneous at high T

    - dH and - dH is nonspontanoues at all T

    - dH and + dS is spontaneous at all T

    - dH and - dS is spontaneous at low T
  57. What is the reaction for dG of the reacxtion
    -RT lnKeq
  58. Wht is the equation for dG for a reaction that has begun
    dGrxn= dGorxn + RTlnQ=RTln(Q/Keq)
  59. Relationship btw moles and volume
    N1/V1= n2/V2
  60. Boyle's law
    PV=PV
  61. Charles law
    V/T= V/T
  62. Gay Lussacs law
    P/T=P/T
  63. Henry's law
    [A]/P=[A]/P
  64. Kinetic energy
    1/2mv^2=3/2kbT 

    kb is boltzmann constant
  65. Root mean square
    Urms=(3RT/M)^.5
  66. Why are real gases not considered ideals?
    Deviations due to pressure (as pressure increases the size of the particles is larger and they take up volume)

    deviations due due to temperature (intermolecular attractions cause gas to have smaller volume)
  67. molality
    moles of solute/ kg of solvent
  68. solubility product constant
    Ksp=[A][B]

    no solids or liquids in the equation; and there is no denominator
  69. Solubility product constant increases with __ and deceases for __
    increasing temperature for non-gas solutes

    decreases for gas solutes

    higher pressures favor dissolution of gas solutes
  70. ion product
    same as Ksp but at a given time
  71. Explain relationship between IP and Ksp
    IP < Ksp: solutes continue to dissolve

    IP= Ksp: solution saturated and at equilibrium

    IP > Ksp: precipitation occurs
  72. boiling point elevation
    xT=ikm

    where i is the van't Hoff factor; kb is proportionality constant, and m is molality
  73. osmotic presure
    II=iMRT
  74. pH
    -log[H+]
  75. estimating scale values of pH
    -log(n*10^-m)=-log(n)-log(10^-m)=m-log(n)

    p value=m-0.n
  76. titration of strong acid and strong base

    - equivalence point
    - starting acid value
    - endpoint
    7

    very low 

    very basic

    (steepest slope)
  77. titration of weak acid and strong base

    - equivalence point
    - starting acid value
    - endpoint
    • -above 7
    • - low
    • - basic
  78. titration of strong acid and weak base

    - equivalence point
    - starting acid value
    - endpoint
    - less than 7
  79. disproportionation
    aka: dismutation

    specific type of redox in which an element undergoes both oxidation and reduction in producing its products
  80. Where does oxidation and reduction occur in an electrochemical cell?
    anode is site of oxidation

    reduction occurs at the cathode
  81. Current runs from __ to __
    cathode to anode
  82. galvanic cells
    connecting two solutions is a salt bridge

    charge begins to flow

    redox is spontaneous
  83. Electron flow in an electrochemical gradient
    A--> C
  84. What is the order of a cell diagram
    anode|anode solution || cathode solution | cathode

    • |= phase boundary 
    • || = salt bridge
  85. electrolytic cells
    nonspontaneous and require input of energy

    mol M= It/nF

    ex: Calculating moles of Metal, It is not Fun
  86. Electrode charge distributions
    anode of galvanic cell is considered negative; cathode is considered positive (electrons move from negative to positive, while current is from positive to negative)

    anode of an electrolytic cell is positive because it is attached to external voltage; cathode is negative
  87. How do you figure out what gets oxidized and what gets reduced?
    the more positive reduction potential is the one that is oxidized
  88. Calculation for total emf?
    Ecell= Ecathode-Eanode
  89. Another equation for Gibbs free energy
    dG=-nFE
  90. Nernst equation
    used for determining cell's emf under situations taht deviate from standard

    Ecell=Ecell(under standard conditions)- (RT)/(nF) lnQ

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