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T or F: a hormone is a chemical messenger that is released into the bloodstream throughout the body
What are the 3 types of hormones? Which ones are hydrophilic and hydrophobic?
- Peptide: chain of amino acids (hydrophilic)
- amino acid based (hydrophilic)
- Steroids: based on cholesterol (hydrophobic)
What 3 things trigger the release of hormones?
- 1. Tropic hormones: hormones triggering other hormones
- 2. Environmental stimuli: strething of things, levels of glucose, calcium, etc.
- 3. Nervous system
What are the 4 main glands?
- 1. Pituitary
- 2. Thyroid
- 3. Pancreas
- 4. Adrenal
Which part of the brain is the pituitary attached to?
T or F: the neurons from the hypothalamus extend into the anterior part of the pituitary which release hormones.
False: posterior part
The hypothalamus releases hormones into the posterior part of the pituitary. What are these 2 hormones?
- Oxytocin: stimulates contractions in labor, leading to more oxytocin, also for lactation of milk, and social bonding between sexes
- ADH: increase BP
What releasing hormone does the hypothalamus send into the anterior part of the pituitary? what does it do?
GnHR: controls the pituitary release
What tropic hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to release its hormones?
Thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH)
What tropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
What are the two gonadotropis hormones?
- Luteinizing hormones (LH)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH)
What does LH do for men and for women?
- Men: triggers release of testosterone
- Women: Triggers ovulation for women and formation of corpus luteam
What cells make progesterone?
What does FSH do for men and for women?
- Men: stimulates sperm production
- Women: stimulates development of follicle (egg + associated structures), in the ovary (makes estrogen)
How are LH and FSH initiated?
The hypothalamus release GnRH into the pituitary gland, which then release LH & FSH
What does prolactin do?
Where is the thyroid located?
on top of the trachea
What do T3 and T4 hormones need for production?
What is goiter?
Occurs in the pituitary gland when it enlarges from not enough iodine
T o F: thyroid gland regulates metabolism
What is the function of calcitonin and what gland secretes it?
Thyroid: stores away calcium
What are the 2 functions of the parathyroid glands?
- 1. releases hormones if Ca++ levels are low
- 2. Tells body to dissolve some bone to increase available Ca++
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
making digestive enzymes and HCO3-
What are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?
- 1. makes insulin: tells cells glucose are available and to take in
- 2. Makes glucagon: when sugar levels are dropping, it tells body to release stored glucose
What is another name for the adrenal gland and its location?
Suprarenal gland: on top of the kidney
In the adrenal gland, what hormone does the adrenal medulla release?
In the adrenal cortex, there are 3 parts (outer, middle, inner) what hormone does the outer and inner parts release?
- Both release steroid hormones
- Outer: mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone
- Inner: sex hormones
What hormone does the middle part of the adrenal cortex release? what does it do?
- Glucocorticoids: primarily Cortisol
- Also called stress hormones, it shifts the balance of how body focuses its energy to deal with stressful situations
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