EXTRA PSYCH

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DesLee26
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EXTRA PSYCH
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2015-05-15 11:12:53
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  1. Effect of sympathetic nervous system on eyes
    dilation of pupil
  2. thyroid hormone
    responsible for regulation of metabolism; can diffuse across the membrane (mitochondrial) and affect the ETC
  3. Parts of the forebrain
    • cerebral cortex
    • basal ganglia
    • limbic system
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  4. cerebral cortex
    complex perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral processes
  5. basal ganglia
    movement
  6. limbic system
    emotion and memory

    contains amygdala and hippocampus, septal nuclei
  7. hyptohalamus
    hunger and thirst; emotion
  8. midbrain
    inferior and superiro collicul: sensorimotor reflexes
  9. cerebellum
    refined motor movements
  10. medulla oblongata
    vital functioning; breathing and digestion
  11. reticular formation
    arousal and alertnes
  12. parts of the hindbrain
    • medulla oblongata
    • cerebellum
    • reticular formation
  13. superior colliculus
    receives visual sensory input
  14. inferior colliculus
    receives sensory info from the auditory system
  15. EEG
    shows electrical activity and can be used for sleep, seizure, and brain lesion studies
  16. ventromedial hypothalaums
    satiety center; stop eating
  17. anterior hypothalamus
    controls sexual behavior; regulates sleep and body temperature

    damage: asexuality
  18. lateral hypothalmus
    hunger center
  19. septal nuclie
    primary pleasure center

    there is an association between addiction and these nucli
  20. amygdala
    important role in defensive and aggressive behaviors

    aggression and fear are reduced if damaged
  21. hippocampus
    vital role in learning and memory; long term memories
  22. prefrontal cortex
    manages executive functions associated with perception, memory, emotional, imulse control, etc.
  23. parietal lobe
    somatosensory cortex ocated here; 

    incoming center for sensory signals for touch, pressure, temp, and pain
  24. occipital lobe
    visual cortex
  25. temporal lobe
    • speech, muscic, sound
    • memory processing, emotion, and language
    • Weernicke's area: language reception and compreshension
  26. acetylcholine
    PNS: transmit nerve impulse to muscles; used by parasym.NS and innervates sweat glands in sym. NS

    • CNS: linked to arousal and attention
    • Alzheimers
  27. dopamine
    plays role in movement and posture

    schizophrenia and Parkinson
  28. serotonin
    regulates mood, eating, sleeping, and dreaming
  29. GABA
    produces inhibitory postsynaptic potential adn is thought to play role in stabilizing neural activity
  30. rooting reflex
    turn of head in the direction of stimulus that touches the cheek
  31. moro relex
    flinging out their arms, then slowly retracting arms and crying
  32. Babinkski reflex
    toes spread apart automatically when foot stimulated
  33. grasping reflex
    infant closes his or her fingers around object placed in hand
  34. nocireceptors
    respond to painful or noxious stimuli
  35. hair cells
    respond to movement of fluid in innear ear
  36. thermoreceptors
    respond to temp
  37. osmoreceptors
    respond to osmolarity of blod
  38. Weber's law
    change in stimulus magnitude is constant
  39. response bias
    tendency of subjects to systematically respond to stimulus in a mparticalr way
  40. hits
    subject correctly perceives the signal
  41. miss
    subject fails to perceive given signal
  42. trials in which signal is not present
    noise trials
  43. trials in which signals are presented
    catch trials
  44. false alarms
    subject seems to perceive signal when noe s given
  45. correct negative
    subject correctly identifies that no signal was given
  46. pathway of vision
    lens

    retina

    optic nerves

    optic chiasm

    optic tracts
  47. pathway of sound
    pinna

    external auditory canal

    tympanic membrane

    middle ear (ossicles)

    inner ear with cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
  48. semicircular canal
    sensitive to rotational acceleration
  49. vestibule
    sensitive to linear acceleration
  50. somatosensation
    often reduced to touch when listed as a sense
  51. pacinian corpuscles
    respond to deep pressure and vibration
  52. meissner corpuscles
    respond to light touch
  53. merkle discs
    respond to deep pressure and texture
  54. ruffini endings
    respond to stretch
  55. dishabitaution
    defined as recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation has occurred; a second stimulus interrupts the habituation process causing a n increase in response to the original stimulus
  56. classical conditioning
    takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses
  57. extinction
    loss of conditioned response to conditioned stimulus
  58. generalization
    broadening effect by which a stimulus similar enoguh to CS can produce CR 

    Little Albert
  59. escape learning
    the role of the behavior is to reduce the unpleasanness of something that already exists
  60. avoidance learning
    meant to prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to hapen
  61. shaping
    process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors

    ex: make your bed
  62. latent learning
    learning tha toccurs without a reward but is spontaneously demonstrated once a reward is introduced
  63. semantic encoding
    put it into meaningful context
  64. working memory
    enables us to keep a few pieces of info in our consciousness simultaneously and manipulate that info
  65. Long term memory division
    explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious)

    explicit: declarative (facts, events)--> episodic (events) and semantic (facts)

    impliict: procedural
  66. Korsakoff syndrome
    thiamine deficiency
  67. retrograde amnesion
    loss of previously formed memories
  68. anterograde amnesia
    inability to form ew memories
  69. Jean Piaget
    sensorimotor: no object permanence 

    preoperational: egocentrism, centration, symbolic thinking (imagination) 2-7

    concrete operational: 7-11; children understand conservation an consider perspectives of othesr; logical thought in terms of knowing the difference between two objects that have the same volume

    formal operational: 11; logical and abstraction
  70. Lev Vgotsky
    cognitive developemnt is the child's internalization of her culture
  71. fluid intelligence
    consists of problem solving skills
  72. crysttallized intelligence
    used of learned skills and knowledge
  73. heuristics
    simpliced principles of making decisions
  74. availability heuristic
    deciding how likely something is
  75. confirmation bias
    tendency to focus on info that fits an individual's beliefs
  76. overconfidence
    tendency to erroneously interpret one's decsions, knowledge, and beliefs
  77. IQ calculation
    mental age/ chronological age
  78. activation synthesis theory
    dreams are casused by widespread, randm activation of neural circuitry
  79. problem solving dream theory
    dreams help solve problems
  80. cognitive process dream theory
    dreams are the spleeping counterpart of stream of consciousness
  81. depressants
    alcohol: increases GABA

    barbiturates: sued as anxiety-reducing and sleep medications
  82. Stimulants
    increase arousal

    amphetamines: increase dopamine release

    cocaine adn crack

    ecstasy: hallucinogen
  83. opiates
    opioids

    heroin mimics endorphins
  84. selective attention
    focusing on one part of sensorium while ognoring others
  85. divided attention
    ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time

    controlled (effortful) processing: undivided attention

    automatic processing: allows brain to focus on other tasks
  86. nativist (biological) theory
    some innate capacity for language
  87. LAD
    langage acquiition device: a theoretical pathway in the brain that allows infants to process and absorb language rules
  88. learning (behaviorist) theory
    operant conditioning; language acquired by reinfrorcement
  89. Whorfian hypothesis
    linguistic relativity hypothesis; our perception of reality
  90. Broca's area
    controls motor function of speech via connections with the motor cortex
  91. Wernicke's area
    responsible for language comprehension
  92. Broca's aphasia
    speech comprehension intact but can't produce or have a hard time expressing spoken language
  93. Wernicke's aphasia
    no speech comprehension--> speak nonsensiical sounds and inappropriate word combos devoid of meanig
  94. conduction aphasia
    can't repeat
  95. secondary drives
    drives that are not directly related to biological processes
  96. primary drives
    motivate us to sustain bodily processes in homeostasis
  97. opponent process theory
    With repeated exposure, the primary process becomes weaker while the opponent process is strengthened.
  98. James Lange
    physiological arousal--> emotion labeled
  99. Cannon-Bard
    simultaneous
  100. Schatner Signger
    cognitive appraisal and physiological response
  101. dorsal prefrontal cortex
    associated with cognition and attention
  102. ventral prefrontal cortex
    responsible for experiencing emotion
  103. ventromedial prefrontal corgtex
    plays role in decision making and controlling emotional responses from the amygdala
  104. cognitive appraisal
    evaluaton of a situation that induces stress

    primary: initial evaluation

    secondary: directed at evaluation whether the organism can cope with the stress
  105. self-concept
    sum of thoughts and feelings about one self
  106. self-discrepancy theory
    we have three selves:

    ideal: person we want to be

    ought self: representation of the way others think we should be

    actual self: way we see ourselves as we currently are
  107. self efficacy
    our belief in our ability to succed
  108. locus of control
    refers to way we characterize influences in our lives

    internal: we control our own fate

    external: things outside of us
  109. Freud's stages of development
    • oral: 0-1
    • anal: 1-3
    • phallic: 3-5
    • latent
    • genital: beginning of puberty
  110. Erikson
    • trust vs mistrust: 0-1
    • autonomy vs. shame adn dobt (1-3
    • initiative vs. guilt (3-6)
    • industry vs. inferiority (6-12)
    • identity vs. role confusion (12-20)
    • intimacy vs. isolation (20-40)
    • generativity vs. stagnation (40-65)
    • integrity vs. despair (65+)
  111. Kohlberg
    preconventional morality: obedience vs. self interest

    conventional: conformity vs. law and order

    postconventional: moral rules vs. decisions that were okay in the context
  112. reference group
    who we compare ourselves to
  113. anima
    feminine characteristics
  114. animus
    masculune characteristics
  115. cardinal traits
    traits around which a person organizes her life
  116. central traits
    major characteristics of the personality that are easy to infer
  117. secondary traits
    other personal characteristics taht are more limited in occurrence
  118. social cognitive perspective
    focuses on how we interact with our environment and how the environment influences our behavior
  119. major depressive disorder
    period of at east two weeks with five of the following symptoms

    • prominent/ persistent depression
    • loss of interest (anhedonia)
    • appetite disturbances
    • weight changes
    • sleep disturbances
    • decreased energy
    • feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
    • difficulty concentrating or thinking
    • psychomotor sympotms
    • suicidal
  120. persistent depressive
    isnt as severe; last two years
  121. dissociative amnesia
    inability to recall past experience
  122. dissociative identitiy disorder
    two or more personalities
  123. Cluster A disorders
    paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid personality disorders

    schizotypal: pattern of odd or eccentric thinking; ideas of reference asn well as magical thinking

    schizoid personality disorder: detachment and restricted range of emotional expression
  124. borderline personality disorder
    pervasive instability in interpersonal behvaior, modd, and self immage

    interpersonal relationships are intense and unstable

    disturbance with uncertainty about self image, sexual identity, etc

    intense fear of abandonment
  125. histrionic personality disorder
    attention seeking behavior
  126. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
    individual is perfectionistic and inflexible
  127. Schizophrenia is associated with __
    an excess of dopamine
  128. Alzheimer's is associated with
    an imbalance of acetylcholine
  129. social action
    actions performed when you have an audience
  130. social facilitation
    people perform better on simple tassks when in the presence of others
  131. Yerkes Dodson law of social facilitation
    people will perform better at simple tasks but unable to perform better at complex tasks
  132. peer pressure
    pressure from people considered equal
  133. identity shift effect
    conforming to norms of the group due to fear of rejection
  134. primary socialization
    we initially learn acceptable actions and attitudes in our society, primarily through observation of parents and other adults
  135. secondary socialization
    process of learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of the larger society
  136. labeling theory
    labels given to people affect both how others respond to that person as well as the person's self image
  137. differential association theory
    deviance can be learned through interactions with others
  138. normative conformity
    desire to fit into a group because of fear of rejection
  139. social cognitive theory
    people learn how to behave and shape attitudes by obseving the behaviors of others
  140. ascribed status
    one that is given involuntaritly
  141. achievedd status
    one that is gained as a result of one's efforts

    ex: being doctor
  142. master status
    status by which a person is most identified
  143. role conflict
    difficulty in satisfying the requirements or expectations of multiple roles
  144. role strain
    difficulty in satisfying multiple requires of the same role
  145. role exit
    drop one ID for another
  146. peer group
    one defined by association with self-selected equals around similar interests, ages, and statuses
  147. family group
    determined by birth, marriage, etc
  148. in groups
    groups to whcih a person belongs
  149. out groups
    groups to which a person competes or is in opposition
  150. primary group
    interactions are direct, with close bonds
  151. secondary group
    interactions are superficial

    ex: students working together on project
  152. impression management
    behaviors that are intended to influence the perception so fother people about a person, object or event
  153. basic model of emotional expression
    emotional expression are experienced and recognized
  154. social construction model
    no biological basis for emotion but experiences and situational context
  155. authentic self
    describes who the person actually is
  156. ideal self
    who we want to be
  157. tactical self
    who we market ourselve to be when we adhere to others' expectation of s
  158. dramaturgical approach
    Goffman theory

    we have a front stage where we present ourselves and a back stage where we are our true selves
  159. altruism
    form of helping behavior in which the person's intent is to benefit someone at some cost to himself
  160. game theory
    a  model explaining decision making pbehavior as game characteristics, inclding strategy, winning and losing, rewards, punishments, profits, and costs;

    ex: Hawk-Dove game= they battle for the same food source
  161. selfishness
    donor benefits while recipient is negatively impacted
  162. spite
    both donor and recipient are negatively impacted
  163. inclusive fitness
    measure of an organism's success in teh population
  164. halo effect
    judge situation by who the person is
  165. jsut world hypothesis
    good things happen to good people etc.
  166. self-serving bias
    individuals will view own success based on internal factors while viewing failures based on external factors
  167. dispositional attributions
    those that relate to berspon whose behavior is being considered
  168. fundamental attribution error
    we are generally biased toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational
  169. functionalism
    study of structure and fucntion of each part of society
  170. conflict theory
    foucuses on how power diferentials are created and how these differentials contribute to the maintenance of social order
  171. symbolic interactionism
    study of the ways individuals interact thorugh a shared understanding of words, gestures, and other symbols
  172. symbols
    things to which we attach meaning
  173. social constructionism
    focuses on how individuals put otgether their social reality
  174. cultural barriers
    when a cultural difference impeddes interaction with others
  175. preindustrial society
    birth and death rates both high
  176. improvements in healthcare:
    death rates drop
  177. improvements in contraception, etc.
    birth rates drop
  178. industrialized society
    both death and birth rates low
  179. anomie
    lack of social norms
  180. social capital
    investmets people make in their society in return for economic or collectie rewards; the greater the investment, the higher the level of social integration and inclusion
  181. meritocracy
    based on intelectual talent and achievement; means for a person to advance up social ladder
  182. plutocracy
    rule by the upper class
  183. social reprodcution
    social inequality is reproduced from one generation to another
  184. absolute poverty
    people dont have eough money or resources
  185. relative poverty
    person is poor in comparison to larger population
  186. incidence
    number of new cases in a given population per time
  187. prevalence
    measure of number of cases of illness overall
  188. morbidity
    burden or degree of lillness associated with a given disease
  189. mortality
    death cased by given disease
  190. medicare
    covers patients over the age of 65, those with end stage renal disease, and those with schlerosis
  191. medicaid
    convers patients who are in sig. fin. need

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