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2015-05-18 01:48:41
physio reproductive
physio exam 4
lecture notes
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  1. What are the 4 division processes of spematogenesis?
    • 1. starts with a cell called spermatogionia, a stem cell
    •  - Divides by mitosis
    • 2. First one divides into a daughter cell, and divides again into the primary spermatocyte
    •  - Commits into meiosis
    • 3. From the rimary spermatocyte, it divides 2 more times, into spermatids
    • 4. From spermatids, spermiogenesis occurs
  2. What is the major difference between the prodution of female and male gametes?
    Oogenesis only leads to the production of one final ovum, while spermatogenesis leads to 4 sperm cells
  3. Where in the testes is sperm production?
    • seminiferous tubules
  4. where in the testes is testosterone production?
    • intertestitial cells of leydig
  5. How does LH effect males? How is it inhibited from being released?
    • It stimulates intestitial cells to make testosterone. 
    • Increase in testosterone will decrease release of LH, definition of negative feedback loop
  6. How does testosterone effect males?
    gives them deeper voice, larger body mass, as well as libido (sex drive)
  7. How does FSH effect males? what specific cells does it target?
    • stimulates the seminiferous tubules to make sperm.
    • Sertori cells: it tells these cells to release paracrine factors that promote spermatogenesis
  8. What cells make up the seminiferous tubules? what do they release and what for?
    Sertori cells: release paracrine factors to promote spermatogenesis
  9. What releases inhibin and what does it do?
    When there's enough sperm production, sertoli cells release it to decrease the release of FSH
  10. How is the production of sperm and testosterone activated?
    • The hypothalamus releases GnRH into the pituitary
    • From the pituitary, it releases LH and FSH
    • LH talks to seminiferous tubules for testosterone
    • FSH talks to interstitial cells of leydig for sperm
  11. What 2 muscles help with testes temperature regulation and how do they do this?
    • 1. Dartos Muscle: can wrinkle the skin of the scrotum to decrease surface area
    • 2. Cremastor Muscle: attached to the abdomin, it can elevate testes closer to the torso
  12. T or F: the parasympathetic response can activate the cremastor muscles to protect the testes
    false: the sympathetic response can
  13. This place in the testes where the sperm go is referred to as the "maturing place." How long does it take to be matured or activated?
    epididymis: 2 or 3 months
  14. What is the area between the internal and external sphincters of the bladder where sperm mixes?
    ejaculatory duct
  15. What is the vas deferens?
    From the testes, it is the tube that penetrates the body wall going to the ejaculatory duct
  16. What glands release their juices into the ejaculatory duct to make semen
    Seminal vesicles and prostate gland
  17. Fill in the blanks: semen is...
    ____ % sperm + fluid from testes
    ____ % seminal fluid from seminal vesicles
    ____ % from prostate gland
    • 10% sperm + fluid from testes
    • 60% seminal fluid
    • 30% from prostate gland
  18. What 3 things does the seminal vesicles add to semen?
    • 1. glucose to give sperm energy
    • 2. clotting factors (like fibrinogen) to help travel once ejaculated
    • 3. prostaglandins
  19. What do the secretions from the prostate glands do to sperm?
    It helps capacitate sperm, to help wake it up.
  20. T or F: sperm can live in the women reproductive tract for 1-4 days
  21. What gland makes a mucus secretion, often called precum, to help flush out the urine?
    Bulbuorethral gland, also called cowper's glands
  22. What are the 2 ejaculation phases?
    • 1. Emmission Phase: when internal and external sphincters tighten up, and the sperm mixs with all the fluids from the different glands
    • 2. Expulsion Phase: after all the sperm of the mix with the fluids, the muscles on the penis contract to ejaculate the sperm
  23. What is cut in the male body during a vasectomy?
    Vas deferens
  24. This structure in males houses the arteries and veins that lead to the arteries
    Inguinal canal
  25. What is the panaform plexus and its function?
    When testicular veins create a network around the artery to cool the blood in the artery going to the testes
  26. This part of the penis has the majority of the nerves during sexual stimulation
  27. What is benign hypertrophy? what issues come along with it?
    when the prostate glands are enlarged, putting pressure on the urethra and making it harder to urinate
  28. How does oogenesis begin?
    • Starts with the primary oocyte going into myosis
    • Instead of equal cloning of daughter cells, however, one cell receives more of the component, eventually leading to one complete egg
  29. What are the "throwaway" daughter cells called?
    polar bodies
  30. Fill in the blanks:
    In the ovary, all the eggs that a women is born with, called the __a__, are scattered on the edge, or cortex of the ovary. Follicle stimulating hormones stimulates the follicle of the (a), and they start dividing into __b__, also referred to as the primary follicle then into the secondary follicle. The last follicle is the __c__, which sits on the edge of the ovary.
    • a. Primordial follicles
    • b. granulosa cells
    • c. Graafian follicle
  31. What is inside the graafian follicle?
    The egg and a fluid filled antrum
  32. What does the graffian follicle create? what is its purpose?
    What does the corpus luteam create and its purpose?
    • Graffian follile creates estrogen: promotes uterine wall to grow endometrium, for a possible pregnancy
    • Corus luteam makes progesterone, which talks to the uterus to preserve endotrium
  33. Fill in the blank:
    Graffian follicle transforms into ____, which lasts 10 days if no pregnancy
    Corpus luteum
  34. What does LH do in women?
    Ovulation is triggered from a spike in LH
  35. What happens to the egg during ovulation?
    The egg is released just outside the ovaries, where sperm is waiting for fertilize it
  36. What is the inner lining of the uterus?
    Endotrium: basal layer
  37. What is looked for during a pregnancy test?
    hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin
  38. t o f: if the corpeus luteum does not degenerate, women can miss their periods
  39. Where does the lubrication come from in the vulva?
    from the filtration of blood
  40. What 2 things happens during arousal?
    • Vasocongestion: swelling of blood
    • Myotonia: muscle tension
  41. Why is the blood-testes barrier important for sperm?
    • it prevents blood-borne substances from mixing with the fluid inside the lumen of sertoli cells
    • it prevents antibodies from entering
  42. What is androgen-binding protein function?
    Secreted from sertoli cells, it is a protein that binds androgens (testosterone) to keep the high level of this hormone within the serminiferous tubule lumen, essential for sustaining sperm production
  43. T or F: testosterone also stimulates production of androgen-binding protein
  44. What hormone inhibits the release of LH? FSH? What secretes them?
    • Leydig Cells: Testosterone acts directly on the anterior pituitary to selectively reduce LH secretion in a negative feedback fashion.
    • Sertoli Cells: release inhibin, which controls FSH secretion
  45. What does the corpus luteam secrete and what are the functions of the secretions?
    • It secretes into the blood abundant quantities of progesterone, and a smaller amount of estrogen
    • The secretions are essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum