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magnitude of the gravitational force
Gm1m2/r^2


first equation of kinematics
x=x+v0t+1/2at^2

second equation of kinematic
v=v0+at

third equation of kinematics
v^2=v^22a(dx)


Power equation
P=W/t=dE/t

Net work equation
Wnet=dKE

mechanical advantage
Fout/Fin
ratio of magnitude of force exerted on object by a simple machine to the force actually applied on the simple machine

efficiency equation
Wout/Win
(load)(load distance)/ (effort)(effort distance)

Fahrenheit> Celsius
(9/5)C+32

thermal expansion
dL=alphaLdT
dV=betaVdT

First law of thermodynamics
dU=QW

When will dU have a positive value? negative value?
 increasing temperature
 decreasing temperature

When will Q have a positive value? negative value?
Heat flows into system
Heat flows out of system

When will Work have a positive value? negative value?
Work is done by the system (expansion)
work is done on the system (compression)

equation that relates the heat gained or lost by an object and the change in temperature of that object
q=mcdT

When heat energy is added to or removed from a system that is experiencing a phase change, the amount of heat that is added or removed cannot be calculated with the equation q=mcdT because there is no temperature change during a phase change. Instead, the following equation is used:
q=mL

How do you use q=mL and q=mcdT in conjunction with one another?
 1) get the substance to its melting point with q=mL
 2) Once at tempearture, use q=mL to get everythign melted (temperature will not change)

Isothermal process (equation)
Q=dW


Isobaric process
no special forms




Specific gravity
desity of a fluid that is often compared to that of pure water at 1 atm and 4 degrees Celsius
SG=density/(1000 kg/m3)

absolute hydrostatic pressure
total pressure exerted on an object that is submerged
P=P_{o}+ (density)gz
P_{o} is the incident or ambient pressure (pressure at the surface)

Gauge pressure
difference between the absolute pressure inside the tire and the atmospheric pressure outside the tire
Pgauge=PPatm=(Po+(rho)gz)Patm

Pascal's principle
a change in pressre will be transmitted undiminished to very portion f the fluid and tot eh walls of the vesssel

Pressure acording to Pascal's principle
P=F/A=F/A

Volume of fluid displaced by one piston and its relationship to the second piston
V=A1d=A2d2

equation for work at constant pressure and volume change
W=F/A(Ad)=F/A(Ad)= F1d1=F2d2

Buoyant force
rho(fluid)V(fluid displaced)g

How can one determine how much of a floating object lies below the surface?
Make comparisons of density or specific gravitty.
An object will float, no matter what it is made of and no matter hw much mass it hs, if the average density is less than or equal to the density of the fluid into which it is placed
ex: specific gravity of an object is 0.92, so its specific gravity is 0.92 and it will be submerged 92%

What is the relationship between the pressure graidient and the radius when dealing with laminar flow in a pipe?
relationship is inverse exponential to the fourth power

Linear speed equation (fluid)
v1A1=v2A2

Bernoulli's equation
P1+(1/2ρv^2)+ρgh=P2+(1/2ρv^2)+ρgh2

dynamic pressure equation
1/2ρv^2

electric field
E=Fe/q=Kq/r2

electrical potential energy
U=kQq/r

Electrical potential
V=kq/r

potential difference (voltage)
dV=VbVa=Wab/q

Finding electric dipole
V=kq/r1kq/r2

diagmagnetic materials
made of atoms with no unpaired electrons

paramagment
have unpaired electrons, but these materials are oriented so that material creates no magnetic field

ferromagnetic
unpaired; magnetic dipoles are normally oriented

Magnetic field equation for a straight current carrying wire
u0I/2pir

Magnetic field equation for a circular current carrying wire
u0I/2r

magnetic force equation on
1) moving charge
2) current carrying wire
 F=qvBsin(theta)
 F= ILBsin(theta)

definition of current
flow of positive charges
(in chemistry, it is the flow of electrons)


equation for distance
R=rhoL/A

Relationship between resistance and:
1) length
2) area
 1) increases with increasing length
 2) decreases with increasing area


Measuring power as a relation of circuits
P=IV=I^2R=V^2/R

capacitance equation
C=Q/V

electric field between parallel plate capacitors
E=V/d

relationship between capacitance and
1) area
2) distance between the plates
 1) increases with area
 2) decreases with increasing distance of plates

potential energy stored in a capacityor
U=1/2CV2

ammeters
measure current
zero resistance

voltmeter
requires an active circuit
measures voltage drop across two points
infinity resistance

transverse waves
those in which the direction of the oscillation is perpendicular to propagation of wave
electromagnetic waves; string fixed in place

longitudinal waves
ones in which the particles of the wave oscillate parallel to the direction of propagation; ex: slinky?


amplitude of a resonating system
it is at its max

amplitue of a forced oscillation
the amplitude s increasing

speed of sound
v=(B/density)^.5

Doppler equation
f'=f


sound level
Beta=10log(I/Io), where Io is 10^12

Snell's law
n=c/v where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and n is the index of refraction
n1sintheta1=n2sintheta2

total internal reflection
thetac=sin^1(n2/n1)


slit lens system
asintheta=n(wavelength)

multiple slits
dsintheta=(n+1/2)wavelength

kinetic energy of ejected electrons
Kmax=hfW
W=hfT

equivalence of matter and energy
E=mc^2


Beta decay
emission of an electron or a positron

Beta decay
a neutron is converted to a proton and a B particle
atomic number will be one higher, but mass number will not chagne

Beta+ decay
a proton is converted into a neutron; the atomic number is one lower but the mass number will not chagne

Gamma decay
no charge ; lower the energy of the parent nucleus

electron capture
atomic number is one less than the original but the mass number remains the same

exponential decay
dn/dt=λ*n
n= number of radioactive nuclei that have ot yet decayed in a sampe
λ is the decay constant

exponential decay equation two
n=n0e^(λt)
λ=0.693/T_{(1/2)}






value of the square root of two
1.414

value of the square root of three
1.732













