Stochastic effects of radiation are nonthreshold and randomly occurring. Examples of stochastic effects include carcinogenesis and genetic effects. The chance of occurrence of stochastic effects is directly related to the radiation dose; that is, as radiation dose increases, there is a greater likelihood of genetic alterations or development of cancer. Nonstochasticeffects are predictable threshold responses; that is, a certain quantity of radiation must be received before the effect will occur, and the greater the dose, the more severe is the effect.