Parasitology: External Parasites (LAB)

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Parasitology: External Parasites (LAB)
2015-06-28 19:03:39
vtht parasitology external parasites

external parasites
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  1. _______ make up 3/4 of the species that inhabit this planet.
    • Parasitic arthropods
    • crawfish, mites, ticks
  2. ______ spend their life studying all arthropods throughout the world.
  3. ___________ study arthropods that effect only humans.
    medical entomologist
  4. ___________ combine the study of arthropod effects on domestic animals and those same diseases that puzzle the medical entomologist.
    veterinary entomologist
  5. Harmful effects of arthropods: (6)
    • Blood loss
    • immunity, hypersensitivity, toxicity
    • worry
    • secondary infection
    • vectors
    • myiasis
  6. Total blood loss by parasites faster than the bone marrow can replace them working at a normal replacement rate. Super parasitism
    Clinical anemia
  7. Total blood loss due to natural means without normal replacement at a normal rate by the bone marrow. Bone marrow depression due to toxic effects of drugs or cancerous in marrow.
    Aplastic anemia
  8. Many arthropods bites are toxic and result in hypersensitivity reactions that are fatal or at least paralytic. These effects are called what?
    Immunity, hypersensitivity and toxicity effects to parasites
  9. Give an example of harmful effects of parasites due to a hypersensitivity, toxicity, or immune effect.
    Tick paralysis - ascending paralysis
  10. Give an example representing what worry can do to an animal suffering from parasitism
    Horn flies and back flies can bother an animal to the point it cannot feed. It loses weight and is economically disastrous for the rancher
  11. Skin invasions by penetrating maggots (1st stage larva) can make available opportunities for bacteria, rickettsia, etc. to invade the skin and set up fulminating infections. What is this effect called? Give example.
    • secondary infection
    • American screwworm
  12. An ascending paralysis most commonly caused by what tick?
    • Tick paralysis
    • brown dog tick
  13. An intermediate or unintentional host that transmits or carries parasite until it is consumed by the definitive host or transmits it to the definitive host
  14. No multiplication or molting of the etiological agent in the vector. Give example.
    • Mechanical vector
    • Lizard eats parasite, dog eats lizard. No molting occurs in lizard
  15. Molting occurs in the intermediate host. Ticks are the most vector or arthropod bone animal plagues. Give example.
    • Biological vector
    • Mosquito transmitting heartworms to the dog. stage 2 to 3 must occur in mosquito
  16. Any infection by fly larvae any Genus and species, as the diagnosis is often made on typical location of the flies or their wounds.
    • Myiasis
    • Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • Hypoderma
  17. Myiasis is generally easy to control with fly sprays and is not urgent, the exception being ___________, the American Screwworm, whose eggs laid can hatch over night and larvae can be inside the host in 24 hours
    Cochliomyia hominivorax
  18. The host that is unintentional, a substitute host
    Paratenic host
  19. The animal that the parasite was intended for, development occurs at its peak when in this animal.
    Definitive host
  20. Number one vector of disease in the United states
  21. Second only to mosquitoes, in the US, as vectors of disease
  22. World wide this is the leading arthropod to transmit disease.
  23. Etiology and vector of Bovine Piroplasmosis (aka_____)
    • Texas Fever
    • Etiology: Babesia bigemina and bovis
    • Vector: Boophilus annulatus (1 host tick)
  24. Etiology and vector of Canine Piroplasmosis
    Give symptoms and clinical signs seen
    • Etiology: Babesia canis
    • Vector: Rhipicephallus sanquineus (3 host tick)
    • > causes anemia leads to hypoxia and death
  25. The two most common ticks found in Texas
    • 1. Boophilus annulatus
    • 2. Rhipicephallus sanquineus
  26. What tick borne protozoan disease causes an anemia by way of lysing the red blood cell
  27. Tick borne protozoan diseases
    • Bovine Piroplasmosis (Texas Fever)
    • Canine Piroplasmosis
  28. Tick borne Rickettsial diseases
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Q Fever
    • Ehrlichiosis
  29. Etiology and Vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Etiology: Rickettsia rickettsi
    • Vector: Dermacentor variables and D. andersoni
  30. Etiology and Vector of Q Fever (____)
    • Heart Water
    • Etiology: Coxiella burnetti
    • Vector: Dermacentor variables and D. andersoni
  31. Why is it called Heart Water
    Animals pericardial space around heart, between visceral pericardia and parietal pericardia, gets full of fluid and causes have difficult time beating
  32. It was theorized that this rickettsial disease came from Vietnam. Military dogs became infected and were ordered to be euthanized. Soldiers that were attached to their K9 friends smuggled them into the states. What is the disease.
  33. Etiology and Vector of Canine Ehrlichiosis
    • Etiology: various Ehrlichia species, common in dogs is Ehrlichia canis
    • Vector: Rhipicephalus sanguineous, brown dog tick
  34. Cats can become infected with which Ehrlichiosis etiologies?
    E. canis and A. Phagocytophilia
  35. E canis more commonly occur in which region of the United States
    Southeastern United States
  36. What does it mean when we say the vector is a 3 host tick?
    It molts in 3 ticks changing from (larva,  nymph, and finally adult) to carry on and multiply
  37. Characteristics of illness seen with Ehrlichiosis
    Acute reduction in thrombocytes and cause a pyrexia (106°F) bloody nose, epistaxis
  38. Rickettsial disease that infects the wbc to the same capacity as it infects the rbc
  39. When and where was E. canis first recognized and when was it reported in the US?
    • Algeria in 1935
    • US in 1963
  40. Clinical signs of Ehrlichiosis
    2 phases:
    Acute phase: depression, anorexia, fever, severe loss of stamina, weight loss, ocular and nasal discharges, dyspnea, lymphadenopathy, and edema of the limbs or scrotum. Die in 3-4 days

    Chronic phase: Signs can be mild to absent. Hematologic abnormalities, including pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, or thrombocytopenia, would be consistent with E. canis.
  41. What is the most consistent hematologic abnormality in both the acute and chronic stages of ehrlichiosis.
  42. Clotting problems seen with Ehrlichiosis
    Pitechial hemorrhaging
  43. Tick borne viral diseases:
    • Louping Ill
    • Western Equine Encephalitis
  44. Sheep is primary host, causes an encaphlomyelitis. All recovered animals become immune for life
    Louping Ill
  45. Louping Ill is transmitted by what?
    Ixodes ricinus
  46. Western and Eastern Equine Encephalitis is also known as:
    Sleeping sickness
  47. Vector of Western Equine Encephalitis
    Rhipicephalus sanquineus
  48. 2 common bacterial diseases spread by ticks
    • Tularemia
    • Canine Bartonelosis
  49. Etiology and vectors of Tularemia
    • Etiology: Francisella tularensis, gram negeative rod
    • Vector: Dermacentors and Ambylomma americanum
  50. This disease is one of two most common bacterial diseases spread by terrorists
  51. Etiology and vector of Canine Bartonellosis
    • Etiology: Bartonella vinsonii (most common in dogs
    • Vector: Rhipicephalus sanquineus
  52. A bacterial disease that is gram-negative and highly adaptive to a mammals red blood cell becoming a life long intraerythrocytic bacteremia
  53. Etiology of cat scratch disease
    Bartonella henslai
  54. The most common Bartonella we see in dogs
    Bartonella vinsonii
  55. Bartonella is gram negative, it does well in which bodily cavity?
    mouth, oral
  56. Diagnosis/clinical signs of Bartonellosis
    Thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis are the most commonly detected hematologic abormalities.
  57. Treatment for Bartonellosis. Drugs of choice
    • Treat with antibiotics for a long period of time
    • Drugs of choice are Macrolides (erythromycin and azithromycin for 4 to 6 weeks.
  58. Lyme disease is known as ___________, a vector borne disease affecting animals and people. Most commonly diagnosed in _________, __________, and _________
    • Lyme borreliosis
    • N. America, Europe, Asia
  59. Most common borrelia in North America is
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  60. These small spirochetes cannot survive free living in the environment and are transmitted between vertebrate hosts
  61. Outbreak of Lyme disease, first recorded in _____
    • Old Lyme, Connecticut
    • 1975
  62. In ________ the spirochete Borrelia was discovered in the tick _________.
    • 1982
    • Ixodes scapularis
  63. In ______ the first canine disease of lyme arthritis reported, followed by cardiac and renal cases.
  64. In _____ lyme disease was reported in 45 of the lower 48 states and was endemic on the east and west coast as well as the upper midwest.
  65. By this year lyme disease was reported in 48 adjuring states
  66. ________ is the east coast transmitting vector of Lyme disease
    Ixodes scapularis
  67. ________ is the west coast transmitting vector of Lyme disease
    Ixodes pacificus
  68. Primary location of Lyme disease in the U.S. is where?
    East and West Coasts
  69. Principal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi
    Ixodes tick
  70. Etiology and vector of Lyme disease
    • Etiology: Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Vector: Ixodes pacificus and I. scapularis
  71. Etiology and primary vector of Malaria
    • Etiology: Plasmodium malaria
    • Vector: Anopheles mosquito
  72. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE) is spread by what
  73. Etiology of heartworm disease
    Dirofilaria immitis
  74. This Flea borne animal plague originated in the Mediterranean. Rats with the infected fleas would take a ride from London to America where the fleas would jump off and infect other animals and people. What is this disease called?
    Bubonic Plague
  75. Etiology of Bubonic plague
    Yersinia pestis
  76. Blood filarid spread by the flea that looks similar to microfilaria of heart-worms.
    Acanthochelonema reconditum
  77. We can tell A. reconditum larva apart from microfilaria of heartworms by looking at the head
    • A. reconditum - blunt (flea)
    • D. immitis microfilaria - tapered (mosquito)
  78. Most common tape worm seen in our domestic dogs
    Diplydium caninum
  79. All true flies that we will discuss are of the order _____ meaning "_____"
    Diptera ("Two-Winged")
  80. Flies are of the class ______. Two forms of flies exist.
    • Insecta
    • Aquatic - primitive
    • Terrestrial - highly adaptive
  81. All adult flies, except _________ (family) have a pair of well developed wings located midway on the body as the mesothoracic area.
  82. Outline and derivation of flies
    • Class - Insecta
    •  Oder - Diptera
    •   Sub-order - Orthorrhapha
  83. The Sub-order Orthorrhapha of flies has three groups: (specify most important group)
    • Group - Nematocera
    • Group - Brachycera
    • Group - Cyclorrhapha (most important)
  84. Group - Nematocera
     Family -
    Group - Brachycera
     Family -
    • G - Nematocera
    •  Family - Culicidae - mosquitoes, sandflies, blackflies and midgies
    • G - Brachycera
    •  Family - Tabanidae - horseflies, deerflies
  85. Group - Cyclorrhapha
     Family -
    • Group - Cyclorrhapha
    •  Family - Oestridae (bots), Cuterebridae (bots), Calliphoridae (blow flies), Sarcophagidae (flesh flies), Hypodermatidae (bots and heel flies, grub), Gasterophilidae (bots), Hyppoboscidae, Muscidae (house flies)
  86. The most primitive of the sub-order Orthorrhapha, antennae are long, many segmented, and hairy. Made up of the gnats and the primary pathogen, the mosquito.
    Group Nematocera
  87. This group of Orthorrhapha is some what more advanced. They are stout and heavy built. It's family, ________, includes horseflies and deerflies, neither of which bear heavily on the pathology of our domestic patients.
    • Group Brachycera
    • Family Tabanidae
  88. The primary pathological artist of the Orthorrhaphas. Bearing an Arista on the distal segment of the antennae.
  89. 3 common flies of family Muscidae:
    • Stomoxys calcitrans - stable fly
    • Haematobia irritans - horn fly
    • Glossina - Tsetse fly
  90. These two flies are the mechanical vectors for __________, they transport equine stomach worms from the feces to other parts of the horse where the larva will bore into the skin resulting in a sore. What are these vectors called?
    • Summer Sore
    • Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans
  91. This fly is commonly used in genetic research because of its quick maturation.
    Tsete fly
  92. Family Muscidae includes:
    • Musca domestica - common House fly
    • Musca autumnalis - face fly
    • Stomoxys calcitrans - stable fly
    • Harmatobia irritans - horn fly
    • Glossina - Tsetse fly
  93. Vector of Trypanosomiasis in domestic animals and humans in Africa. Species of this fly reach up to 14mm in length. Like stable flies, the mouthparts project forward from the head, but the wings lie across the back like scissors.
    Glossina, the tsetse fly
  94. Worm transported by the fly Musca autumnalis to the eye of the horse.
    Thelazia lacrimalis
  95. Thelazia found in
    1. cattle and horses
    2. only cattle
    3. dogs, sheep and wild mammals
    • 1. Thelazia lacrymalis and T. skrjabini
    • 2. T. gulosa
    • 3. T. californiensis
  96. Once in the eye of the horse the egg of Thelazia lacrimalis will.......
    Larva hatches, crawls on the eye and feeds on the conjunctiva, it does not penetrate the eye.
  97. Culicidae (mosquito) life cycle
    • 1. Egg is laid on water, must be still water. Hatch in days. Air breathers.
    • 2. Larva molts 4x in less than 2 weeks ending in pupae stage
    • 3. Pupae develops into adult mosquitos
  98. The 4 stages of development of Nematocera
    egg - larva - pupae - adult
  99. Adult fly is called what?
    Imago (only applies to the adult fly)
  100. ________ are biological vectors for diseases such malaria, eastern equine encephalitis, Dirofilaria immitis etc
  101. Life cycle of Musca domestica (______)
    Mechanical vector for __________
    • (house fly), summer sores
    • 1. egg laid on manure or organic material
    • 2. 1st stage larvae (maggot) emerge within 1-2 days
    • 3. 1st stage larva molts twice into 3rd stage
    • 4. 3rd stage moves to a dry place and pupates
    • 5. pupae (4th stage) molt to imago (adult) in 2-3 weeks.
  102. Explain what a summer sore is and how it is transmitted.
    A summer sore is actually a gastric worm in egg or larva form that was picked up by M. domestica or Stomoxys calcitrans and then carried to a moist area on the horse where it will hatch (if in egg form) and burrow into the skin. The larva will go no deeper.
  103. Life cycle of Musca autumnalis (_____)
    • (face fly),
    • 1. eggs are laid in cow droppings.
    • 2. eggs hatch and larva emerge
    • 3. The larva molt to pupae and imago.
    • 4. Imago fly away and continue life cycle
  104. Musca autumnalis serve as a mechanical vector for __________(the _____ worm) in cattle and horses
    Thelazia lacrimalis (eye worm)
  105. Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans serve as mechanical vectors for __________
    Summer sores
  106. These flies crawl on the face of horses and feeds on ocular and nasal discharges.
    Musca autumnalis
  107. This fly prefers to lay its eggs on grass clippings
    Stomoxys calcitrans
  108. Life cycle of Stomoxys calciatrans (_____)
    • 1. feed on blood from horses primarily numerous times spreading blood borne viruses.
    • 2. reproduce by laying eggs in the grass where they hatch and molt to the imago
  109. These two flies serve as a mechanical vector for Habronema microstoma.
    S. calcitrans and M. domestica
  110. Flies that feed on blood
    • Haematobia irritans
    • Stomoxys calcitrans
  111. The life cycle of Haematobia irritans (______)
    • horn fly
    • 1. flies live on back and suck blood leaving only to lay eggs in the feces
    • 2. larvae hatch immediately and feed on feces
    • 3. pupation occurs in 4-5 days
    • 4. adult emerges from egg in 11-12 days
  112. Effective prevention and treatment for the "horn fly" and why it is so effective:
    Applying an insecticide is very effective because the "horn fly" remains on animals back most of its life and eggs take less than 2 weeks to hatch.
  113. These flies are the intermediate host of microfilariae in the skin of the bovine.
    Haematobia irritans (horn fly)
  114. Haematobia irritans takes this filarid to the skin of the cow where it will penetrate and remain in the skin. Its counter part, found in the horse, is called __________.
    Onchocerca gutterosa in the cow and Onchocerca cervicalis in the equine.
  115. Both Onchocerca gutterosa and O. cervicalis are called
    "Heartworm disease in the cow and the horse"
  116. This fly is famous for being used in genetic research. Why? (Common and scientific name)
    • Glossina (tsetse fly)
    • This fly gives birth to mature larvae ready to pupate quickly, so new born is seen and recorded every 10-12 days.
  117. Famous to the World Health Organization for the transmission of sleeping sickness of animals and man mainly in Africa.
    Glossina (tsetse fly)
  118. First most common name in domestic animal disease is ___________ and the second most common is ________.
    • sleeping sickness
    • red water
  119. Life cycle of Cochliomyia hominovorax (______________)
    • American screwworm
    • 1. female lays eggs on wounds or moist tissue
    • 2. eggs will hatch in one day to aggressive larva that begin feeding
    • 3. larvae will fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days 
    • 4. adults emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce
    • 5. female commence to lay eggs
  120. Family Sarcophagidae is known as - 
    Family Calliphoridae is known as -
    • Flesh flies
    • Blow flies
  121. __________ "old world screw worm" was reported infecting a dog located in ____________ on _________.
    Came to Boston via _______.
    • Chrysomya bezzian
    • Norwell, Massachusetts
    • November 1, 2007
    • Singapore
  122. This family is the most advanced parasitic larvae of all the parasitic bot flies.
  123. Most of the Cylclorrhapha have short life cycles, the _________ and ___________ have extended life cycles.
    Hypoderma and Gasterophilus
  124. These adult flies lack mouth parts (vestigal) and thus cannot feed, they only live long enough to breed and deposit their eggs near the host
    Hypoderma and Gasterophlius
  125. Life cycle of Hypoderma lineatum
    • Larva is consumed orally by the cow
    • Penetrate the intestines and migrate viscerally 5 months, ending up in the area of the esophagus
    • 3 months around esophagus
    • larva migrate to subcutaneous tissue of the back. Will burrow into hide and create breathing holes (grubby back) and molt twice
    • after molting the Grub (larva) mature, enlarge the holes and fall off to pupate
    • adult flies emerge to reproduce and lay eggs
  126. Life cycle of Hypoderma bovis
    • Eggs laid on back of cow 
    • larva penetrate the skin and migrate for an unsure time but accumulate around the spinal canal
    • The larva then move to the back of the cow to punch holes in the hide for air. 
    • Following 2 molts they fall to the ground and pupate
    • adult flies emerge and begin to reproduce and lay eggs
  127. Damage due to Hypodermatidae
    • 1. Grubby back. lessens the value of the hide and cow at auction
    • 2. if grub is ruptured by accident, they can release a chemical that results in vascular collapse - shock and death occur in minutes to seconds
  128. Treatment of Hypodermatidae
    Ivomec be administered in the fall and/or one can apply organophosphate chemicals prior to entry of H. bovis
  129. Life cycle of Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • Eggs laid on foreleg and shoulders
    • Eggs consumed by horse in about 5 days, hatch and larva migrate to tongue 1 month, swallowed and attach itself to stomach lining 10-11 months
    • release and pass in feces as pupal cases, 3-9 wks adult emerges
  130. Life cycle of Gasterophilus