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_______ make up 3/4 of the species that inhabit this planet.
- Parasitic arthropods
- crawfish, mites, ticks
______ spend their life studying all arthropods throughout the world.
___________ study arthropods that effect only humans.
___________ combine the study of arthropod effects on domestic animals and those same diseases that puzzle the medical entomologist.
Harmful effects of arthropods: (6)
- Blood loss
- immunity, hypersensitivity, toxicity
- secondary infection
Total blood loss by parasites faster than the bone marrow can replace them working at a normal replacement rate. Super parasitism
Total blood loss due to natural means without normal replacement at a normal rate by the bone marrow. Bone marrow depression due to toxic effects of drugs or cancerous in marrow.
Many arthropods bites are toxic and result in hypersensitivity reactions that are fatal or at least paralytic. These effects are called what?
Immunity, hypersensitivity and toxicity effects to parasites
Give an example of harmful effects of parasites due to a hypersensitivity, toxicity, or immune effect.
Tick paralysis - ascending paralysis
Give an example representing what worry can do to an animal suffering from parasitism
Horn flies and back flies can bother an animal to the point it cannot feed. It loses weight and is economically disastrous for the rancher
Skin invasions by penetrating maggots (1st stage larva) can make available opportunities for bacteria, rickettsia, etc. to invade the skin and set up fulminating infections. What is this effect called? Give example.
- secondary infection
- American screwworm
An ascending paralysis most commonly caused by what tick?
- Tick paralysis
- brown dog tick
An intermediate or unintentional host that transmits or carries parasite until it is consumed by the definitive host or transmits it to the definitive host
No multiplication or molting of the etiological agent in the vector. Give example.
- Mechanical vector
- Lizard eats parasite, dog eats lizard. No molting occurs in lizard
Molting occurs in the intermediate host. Ticks are the most vector or arthropod bone animal plagues. Give example.
- Biological vector
- Mosquito transmitting heartworms to the dog. stage 2 to 3 must occur in mosquito
Any infection by fly larvae any Genus and species, as the diagnosis is often made on typical location of the flies or their wounds.
- Gasterophilus intestinalis
Myiasis is generally easy to control with fly sprays and is not urgent, the exception being ___________, the American Screwworm, whose eggs laid can hatch over night and larvae can be inside the host in 24 hours
The host that is unintentional, a substitute host
The animal that the parasite was intended for, development occurs at its peak when in this animal.
Number one vector of disease in the United states
Second only to mosquitoes, in the US, as vectors of disease
World wide this is the leading arthropod to transmit disease.
Etiology and vector of Bovine Piroplasmosis (aka_____)
- Texas Fever
- Etiology: Babesia bigemina and bovis
- Vector: Boophilus annulatus (1 host tick)
Etiology and vector of Canine Piroplasmosis
Give symptoms and clinical signs seen
- Etiology: Babesia canis
- Vector: Rhipicephallus sanquineus (3 host tick)
- > causes anemia leads to hypoxia and death
The two most common ticks found in Texas
- 1. Boophilus annulatus
- 2. Rhipicephallus sanquineus
What tick borne protozoan disease causes an anemia by way of lysing the red blood cell
Tick borne protozoan diseases
- Bovine Piroplasmosis (Texas Fever)
- Canine Piroplasmosis
Tick borne Rickettsial diseases
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Q Fever
Etiology and Vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Etiology: Rickettsia rickettsi
- Vector: Dermacentor variables and D. andersoni
Etiology and Vector of Q Fever (____)
- Heart Water
- Etiology: Coxiella burnetti
- Vector: Dermacentor variables and D. andersoni
Why is it called Heart Water
Animals pericardial space around heart, between visceral pericardia and parietal pericardia, gets full of fluid and causes have difficult time beating
It was theorized that this rickettsial disease came from Vietnam. Military dogs became infected and were ordered to be euthanized. Soldiers that were attached to their K9 friends smuggled them into the states. What is the disease.
Etiology and Vector of Canine Ehrlichiosis
- Etiology: various Ehrlichia species, common in dogs is Ehrlichia canis
- Vector: Rhipicephalus sanguineous, brown dog tick
Cats can become infected with which Ehrlichiosis etiologies?
E. canis and A. Phagocytophilia
E canis more commonly occur in which region of the United States
Southeastern United States
What does it mean when we say the vector is a 3 host tick?
It molts in 3 ticks changing from (larva, nymph, and finally adult) to carry on and multiply
Characteristics of illness seen with Ehrlichiosis
Acute reduction in thrombocytes and cause a pyrexia (106°F) bloody nose, epistaxis
Rickettsial disease that infects the wbc to the same capacity as it infects the rbc
When and where was E. canis first recognized and when was it reported in the US?
- Algeria in 1935
- US in 1963
Clinical signs of Ehrlichiosis
Acute phase: depression, anorexia, fever, severe loss of stamina, weight loss, ocular and nasal discharges, dyspnea, lymphadenopathy, and edema of the limbs or scrotum. Die in 3-4 days
Chronic phase: Signs can be mild to absent. Hematologic abnormalities, including pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, or thrombocytopenia, would be consistent with E. canis.
What is the most consistent hematologic abnormality in both the acute and chronic stages of ehrlichiosis.
Clotting problems seen with Ehrlichiosis
Tick borne viral diseases:
- Louping Ill
- Western Equine Encephalitis
Sheep is primary host, causes an encaphlomyelitis. All recovered animals become immune for life
Louping Ill is transmitted by what?
Western and Eastern Equine Encephalitis is also known as:
Vector of Western Equine Encephalitis
2 common bacterial diseases spread by ticks
- Canine Bartonelosis
Etiology and vectors of Tularemia
- Etiology: Francisella tularensis, gram negeative rod
- Vector: Dermacentors and Ambylomma americanum
This disease is one of two most common bacterial diseases spread by terrorists
Etiology and vector of Canine Bartonellosis
- Etiology: Bartonella vinsonii (most common in dogs
- Vector: Rhipicephalus sanquineus
A bacterial disease that is gram-negative and highly adaptive to a mammals red blood cell becoming a life long intraerythrocytic bacteremia
Etiology of cat scratch disease
The most common Bartonella we see in dogs
Bartonella is gram negative, it does well in which bodily cavity?
Diagnosis/clinical signs of Bartonellosis
Thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis are the most commonly detected hematologic abormalities.
Treatment for Bartonellosis. Drugs of choice
- Treat with antibiotics for a long period of time
- Drugs of choice are Macrolides (erythromycin and azithromycin for 4 to 6 weeks.
Lyme disease is known as ___________, a vector borne disease affecting animals and people. Most commonly diagnosed in _________, __________, and _________
- Lyme borreliosis
- N. America, Europe, Asia
Most common borrelia in North America is
These small spirochetes cannot survive free living in the environment and are transmitted between vertebrate hosts
Outbreak of Lyme disease, first recorded in _____
- Old Lyme, Connecticut
In ________ the spirochete Borrelia was discovered in the tick _________.
In ______ the first canine disease of lyme arthritis reported, followed by cardiac and renal cases.
In _____ lyme disease was reported in 45 of the lower 48 states and was endemic on the east and west coast as well as the upper midwest.
By this year lyme disease was reported in 48 adjuring states
________ is the east coast transmitting vector of Lyme disease
________ is the west coast transmitting vector of Lyme disease
Primary location of Lyme disease in the U.S. is where?
East and West Coasts
Principal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi
Etiology and vector of Lyme disease
- Etiology: Borrelia burgdorferi
- Vector: Ixodes pacificus and I. scapularis
Etiology and primary vector of Malaria
- Etiology: Plasmodium malaria
- Vector: Anopheles mosquito
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE) is spread by what
Etiology of heartworm disease
This Flea borne animal plague originated in the Mediterranean. Rats with the infected fleas would take a ride from London to America where the fleas would jump off and infect other animals and people. What is this disease called?
Etiology of Bubonic plague
Blood filarid spread by the flea that looks similar to microfilaria of heart-worms.
We can tell A. reconditum larva apart from microfilaria of heartworms by looking at the head
- A. reconditum - blunt (flea)
- D. immitis microfilaria - tapered (mosquito)
Most common tape worm seen in our domestic dogs
All true flies that we will discuss are of the order _____ meaning "_____"
Flies are of the class ______. Two forms of flies exist.
- Aquatic - primitive
- Terrestrial - highly adaptive
All adult flies, except _________ (family) have a pair of well developed wings located midway on the body as the mesothoracic area.
Outline and derivation of flies
- Class - Insecta
- Oder - Diptera
- Sub-order - Orthorrhapha
The Sub-order Orthorrhapha of flies has three groups: (specify most important group)
- Group - Nematocera
- Group - Brachycera
- Group - Cyclorrhapha (most important)
Group - Nematocera
Group - Brachycera
- G - Nematocera
- Family - Culicidae - mosquitoes, sandflies, blackflies and midgies
- G - Brachycera
- Family - Tabanidae - horseflies, deerflies
Group - Cyclorrhapha
- Group - Cyclorrhapha
- Family - Oestridae (bots), Cuterebridae (bots), Calliphoridae (blow flies), Sarcophagidae (flesh flies), Hypodermatidae (bots and heel flies, grub), Gasterophilidae (bots), Hyppoboscidae, Muscidae (house flies)
The most primitive of the sub-order Orthorrhapha, antennae are long, many segmented, and hairy. Made up of the gnats and the primary pathogen, the mosquito.
This group of Orthorrhapha is some what more advanced. They are stout and heavy built. It's family, ________, includes horseflies and deerflies, neither of which bear heavily on the pathology of our domestic patients.
- Group Brachycera
- Family Tabanidae
The primary pathological artist of the Orthorrhaphas. Bearing an Arista on the distal segment of the antennae.
3 common flies of family Muscidae:
- Stomoxys calcitrans - stable fly
- Haematobia irritans - horn fly
- Glossina - Tsetse fly
These two flies are the mechanical vectors for __________, they transport equine stomach worms from the feces to other parts of the horse where the larva will bore into the skin resulting in a sore. What are these vectors called?
- Summer Sore
- Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans
This fly is commonly used in genetic research because of its quick maturation.
Family Muscidae includes:
- Musca domestica - common House fly
- Musca autumnalis - face fly
- Stomoxys calcitrans - stable fly
- Harmatobia irritans - horn fly
- Glossina - Tsetse fly
Vector of Trypanosomiasis in domestic animals and humans in Africa. Species of this fly reach up to 14mm in length. Like stable flies, the mouthparts project forward from the head, but the wings lie across the back like scissors.
Glossina, the tsetse fly
Worm transported by the fly Musca autumnalis to the eye of the horse.
Thelazia found in
1. cattle and horses
2. only cattle
3. dogs, sheep and wild mammals
- 1. Thelazia lacrymalis and T. skrjabini
- 2. T. gulosa
- 3. T. californiensis
Once in the eye of the horse the egg of Thelazia lacrimalis will.......
Larva hatches, crawls on the eye and feeds on the conjunctiva, it does not penetrate the eye.
Culicidae (mosquito) life cycle
- 1. Egg is laid on water, must be still water. Hatch in days. Air breathers.
- 2. Larva molts 4x in less than 2 weeks ending in pupae stage
- 3. Pupae develops into adult mosquitos
The 4 stages of development of Nematocera
egg - larva - pupae - adult
Adult fly is called what?
Imago (only applies to the adult fly)
________ are biological vectors for diseases such malaria, eastern equine encephalitis, Dirofilaria immitis etc
Life cycle of Musca domestica (______)
Mechanical vector for __________
- (house fly), summer sores
- 1. egg laid on manure or organic material
- 2. 1st stage larvae (maggot) emerge within 1-2 days
- 3. 1st stage larva molts twice into 3rd stage
- 4. 3rd stage moves to a dry place and pupates
- 5. pupae (4th stage) molt to imago (adult) in 2-3 weeks.
Explain what a summer sore is and how it is transmitted.
A summer sore is actually a gastric worm in egg or larva form that was picked up by M. domestica or Stomoxys calcitrans and then carried to a moist area on the horse where it will hatch (if in egg form) and burrow into the skin. The larva will go no deeper.
Life cycle of Musca autumnalis (_____)
- (face fly),
- 1. eggs are laid in cow droppings.
- 2. eggs hatch and larva emerge
- 3. The larva molt to pupae and imago.
- 4. Imago fly away and continue life cycle
Musca autumnalis serve as a mechanical vector for __________(the _____ worm) in cattle and horses
Thelazia lacrimalis (eye worm)
Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans serve as mechanical vectors for __________
These flies crawl on the face of horses and feeds on ocular and nasal discharges.
This fly prefers to lay its eggs on grass clippings
Life cycle of Stomoxys calciatrans (_____)
- 1. feed on blood from horses primarily numerous times spreading blood borne viruses.
- 2. reproduce by laying eggs in the grass where they hatch and molt to the imago
These two flies serve as a mechanical vector for Habronema microstoma.
S. calcitrans and M. domestica
Flies that feed on blood
- Haematobia irritans
- Stomoxys calcitrans
The life cycle of Haematobia irritans (______)
- horn fly
- 1. flies live on back and suck blood leaving only to lay eggs in the feces
- 2. larvae hatch immediately and feed on feces
- 3. pupation occurs in 4-5 days
- 4. adult emerges from egg in 11-12 days
Effective prevention and treatment for the "horn fly" and why it is so effective:
Applying an insecticide is very effective because the "horn fly" remains on animals back most of its life and eggs take less than 2 weeks to hatch.
These flies are the intermediate host of microfilariae in the skin of the bovine.
Haematobia irritans (horn fly)
Haematobia irritans takes this filarid to the skin of the cow where it will penetrate and remain in the skin. Its counter part, found in the horse, is called __________.
Onchocerca gutterosa in the cow and Onchocerca cervicalis in the equine.
Both Onchocerca gutterosa and O. cervicalis are called
"Heartworm disease in the cow and the horse"
This fly is famous for being used in genetic research. Why? (Common and scientific name)
- Glossina (tsetse fly)
- This fly gives birth to mature larvae ready to pupate quickly, so new born is seen and recorded every 10-12 days.
Famous to the World Health Organization for the transmission of sleeping sickness of animals and man mainly in Africa.
Glossina (tsetse fly)
First most common name in domestic animal disease is ___________ and the second most common is ________.
- sleeping sickness
- red water
Life cycle of Cochliomyia hominovorax (______________)
- American screwworm
- 1. female lays eggs on wounds or moist tissue
- 2. eggs will hatch in one day to aggressive larva that begin feeding
- 3. larvae will fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days
- 4. adults emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce
- 5. female commence to lay eggs
Family Sarcophagidae is known as -
Family Calliphoridae is known as -
__________ "old world screw worm" was reported infecting a dog located in ____________ on _________.
Came to Boston via _______.
- Chrysomya bezzian
- Norwell, Massachusetts
- November 1, 2007
This family is the most advanced parasitic larvae of all the parasitic bot flies.
Most of the Cylclorrhapha have short life cycles, the _________ and ___________ have extended life cycles.
Hypoderma and Gasterophilus
These adult flies lack mouth parts (vestigal) and thus cannot feed, they only live long enough to breed and deposit their eggs near the host
Hypoderma and Gasterophlius
Life cycle of Hypoderma lineatum
- Larva is consumed orally by the cow
- Penetrate the intestines and migrate viscerally 5 months, ending up in the area of the esophagus
- 3 months around esophagus
- larva migrate to subcutaneous tissue of the back. Will burrow into hide and create breathing holes (grubby back) and molt twice
- after molting the Grub (larva) mature, enlarge the holes and fall off to pupate
- adult flies emerge to reproduce and lay eggs
Life cycle of Hypoderma bovis
- Eggs laid on back of cow
- larva penetrate the skin and migrate for an unsure time but accumulate around the spinal canal
- The larva then move to the back of the cow to punch holes in the hide for air.
- Following 2 molts they fall to the ground and pupate
- adult flies emerge and begin to reproduce and lay eggs
Damage due to Hypodermatidae
- 1. Grubby back. lessens the value of the hide and cow at auction
- 2. if grub is ruptured by accident, they can release a chemical that results in vascular collapse - shock and death occur in minutes to seconds
Treatment of Hypodermatidae
Ivomec be administered in the fall and/or one can apply organophosphate chemicals prior to entry of H. bovis
Life cycle of Gasterophilus intestinalis
- Eggs laid on foreleg and shoulders
- Eggs consumed by horse in about 5 days, hatch and larva migrate to tongue 1 month, swallowed and attach itself to stomach lining 10-11 months
- release and pass in feces as pupal cases, 3-9 wks adult emerges
Life cycle of Gasterophilus