upper limb neuro and tb

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upper limb neuro and tb
2015-05-17 08:48:00
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  1. what are the main signs of brown-sequard syndrome?
    ipsilateral dorsal column loss and and motor weakness. Contralateral loss of spinothalmic tracts.
  2. what are the sentinel signs of syringomyelia?
    bilateral loss of spinothalmic tracts, dorsal columns preserved. E.g. cape and jersy pattern with normal above and below.
  3. what are causes of a true claw hand?
    ulnar and median nerve lesion, brachial plexus lesion, RA, ischaemic contracture, other neuro disease
  4. breast signs and dermatology
  5. what breast signs occur in tietze's disease?
    prominence and tenderness over 2-4th costal cartilages?
  6. what are the differentials for peau d'orange?
    axillary surgery, post-radiotherapy, post-mastitis/cellulitis, inflammatory breast cancer
  7. what lesions might be shown by wood's light?
    demonstrate tinea capitis or hypopigmented lesions in tuberous sclerosis
  8. what is the ABCDE rule for melanoma?
    assymetry, border, colour, diameter, evolution, symptoms
  9. what are beau's lines?
    horizontal lines following major illness, eczema, paronychia, psoriasis
  10. what are the cardiac causes of clubbing?
    AV malformation, atrial myxoma
  11. what are the resp causes of clubbing?
    carcinoma, suppurative disease (bronchiectesis, abscess, empyema), IPF
  12. what are the GI causes of clubbing?
    cirrhosis (especially biliary cirrhosis) IBD, coeliac disease
  13. what are endocrine causes of clubbing?
  14. what are causes of telangiectasia?
    CTDs e.g. SLE.
  15. Which TB drugs may cause liver toxicity?
    Pyrazinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid may all cause hepatotoxicity
  16. Which TB drugs may cause pregnancy and why?
    Rifampicin is a potent hepatic enzyme inducer which causes oral contraceptive failure.
  17. What are the major side effects of ethambutol?
    The main adverse effects of ethambutol are loss of visual acuity, restriction of visual fields and colour blindness