Test 3 Lecture 28

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  1. The Peopling of the Arctic
    • harshest living conditions on earth
    • survival requires knowledge, specialized skill, versatility and seasonality know how
  2. Arctic Environment
    Image Upload
    • area north of 66⁰ 33’N (the Arctic Circle). 
    • Includes Canada, Alaska, Russia, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland
    • Most of the area is located above the tree line, which follows the isotherm (latitude that has the same temperature) along the Arctic Circle.
    • Extremely fluctuating temperatures
    • Temperatures average -40⁰ C (-40⁰ F) in winter and about 10⁰ C (50⁰ F) in the summer.
    • Precipitation is low, average less than 20 inches a year, primarily as snow
  3. Arctic Flora
    • Vegetation consists of small shrubs, lichens, mosses, and herbs, and is representative of tundra environments further south. 
    • Plant life becomes increasingly sparse further north and eventually dissipates altogether.
    • low arctic has much more vegetation
    • low arctic is in the south
    • further north the more scare vegetation is
  4. Arctic Fauna
    • variable seasonality
    • Terrestrial species include fox, caribou, muskox, arctic squirrel, wolf, hare, lemming small members of the rodentia andermine families
    • Marine species include seal, walrus, beluga, narwhal, baleen whale, Greenland shark,and killer whale.
    • Avian species include auk, puffin, snow owl, and about 54 other species
  5. Late Arrival: The Peopling of the Arctic
    • Arctic populated because of harsh environment.
    • unclear if migration into North America occurred from the south or if people came across the ice and waters of Siberia.
    • After initial migration into North America  archaeologists identified three separate northerly migrations.
    • (1)- 11,000 years ago into Yukon and Alaska
    • (2)- 8000 years ago into the Barren Grounds west of Hudson Bay
    • (3)- 9000 years ago along the Atlantic coast.
  6. Arctic Small Tools Tradition (ASTt)
    • distinctive micro-lithic industry penetrates the Arctic Circle.
    • Characterized by micro-blades, scrapers, and burins as small as 2 centimeters
    • Origins are unclear. 
    • Two major traditions:
    • Independence I Culture of the High Arctic, and Pre-Dorset of the Low Arctic.
  7. Independence I (2000-1700)
    • defined by Eigil Knuth (1903-1996) discovered evidence of early occupation along the beaches.
    • apart of Danish Pearyland Expedition to Independence Fjord in 1948
    • 1st evidence of human occupation in the arctic
    • Evidence included microliths, bone needles, and hearths.
    • Independence I camps identified on Ellesmere, Devon, and Cornwallis islands in the Canadian High Arctic.
    • small camps consisting of small box-shaped hearth made from stone slabs set upright on a gravel beach.
    • In a few cases a second row of slabs have been erected and the gravel between them
    • and the hearth smoothed over to make sleeping areas, with a narrow rim of gravel forming a perimeter to hold down a tent or skin shelter.
    • Dispersed distribution of short-term campsites.
    • Port Refuge, Devon Island, has over 100 camps along 20 kilometers.
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    identifiable in the high arctic because of lack of vegetation and biomass to push the materials underground
  9. Pre-Dorset 1700-800 BC
    • Centered in the region of northern Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin, which is a much richer biosphere.
    • Considered ancestral to the later Dorset cultures of the eastern Arctic.
    • In comparison to Independence I, Pre-Dorset microblades and burins are smaller, occasionally ground or polished on one surface.
    • harpoon tools change - more rigorous
    • In this they resemble materials from western Alaska, suggesting an early migration eastwards around 2000 BC.
    • Camp sites change to more clustered and more circular features, often with boulders to hold down the tent structure
    • Soap-stone lamps used to burn blubber.
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Test 3 Lecture 28
2015-05-18 04:12:51

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