Tunit were strong people, and yet they were driven from their villages by others who were more numerous
Diamond Jenness identified dorset culture anthropologist from New Zealand. Conducted fieldwork in canada called “Father of Eskimo Archaeology”
studied “Origin of the Copper Eskimo and Their Copper Culture.”
independent I culture stops - people stop populating, return with new culture called
Independence II Culture 1000-500 BC
High Arctic become depopulated
700 years later a new archaeological cultural complex emerges that bears resemblance to both Independence I and Pre-Dorset, and exhibits features that later become associated with Dorset Culture such as side-knotches for knives.
As such Independence II represents a continuation of some previous traditions as well as the introduction of new forms that later become associated with Dorset Culture further to the South.
Dorset (800BC- 1000 AD)
first identified by Diamond Jenness in 1925 (pre C14 dating).
Influence from both Pre-Dorset and Independence II
First unequivocal evidence of seasonal subsistence strategies.
Spring and summer spent pursuing Walrus and seal, fishing in late summer, and winter spent in semi-subterranean houses on the coast.
No evidence of complex float equipment
Sampling bias? Snow houses on the ice may not be visible.
dorset is seasonal
dorset in summer - out on the coast
dorset in late summer - fishing camps
in winter - permanent lodgings
no evidence of boats and floatation equipment
evidence of snow knives
not ancestral to inuits
made up of ivory, bone and wood
Whalers in Skin Boats: Alaska 1000 BC- 1000 AD
Choris cultural complex similar to siberian culture, 1st attempt for people to experiment with specialized marine extraction
Norton culture complex in western alaska
Earliest evidence for material culture that we can positively attribute and trace through time to contemporary Eskimo lifeways.
The use of skin vessels (kayaks)
Introduction of the float harpoon.
Old Bering Sea Culture - in siberia and alaska
Punuk Culture - connected by all of this, it is out of this that 2nd wave
The Second Wave: Thule (1000-1600AD)
Thule emerges as a cultural complex out of previous Alaskan traditions.
There is a global warming trend in the centuries which partially opened swaths of the sea-ice of the High Arctic
Connected to hunting of large whales
use of whale bones in material culture; settlement structures
Spreads rapidly across the Arctic.
ancestral to inuit
The Little Ice-Age and the Development of Inuit Culture
1350 - global little ice age - cooling period where temperatures dropped significantly
results in the disappearance of Norse on Greenland
The break-up of Thule communities into smaller local variants.
ancestors of the inuit
development of Inuit communities firmly rooted in Thule cultural tradition
material culture associated with inuit
materials seen today can be traced back to thule populations
eskimo - word comes from algonquian speakers
eskimo: refers to people who wear snowshoes or foreigners who live beyond us in the snow