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what has generally (and historically) been associated with being “indigenous” in Latin America?
- Being Indigenous in Latin America means:
- Speaking an indigenous language
- Having different cultural traditions and values than broader Hispanic society (eg. medicine; religion; rejection of market economy; communal property, etc.).
- Living in a rural indigenous community
- Subsistence farming
- campesinos can be indiginous and mestizo
how have indigenous people migrating and becoming involved with industries such as the agro-export sector changed our understanding of what it means to be indigenous
- Historically being indiginous required a few things
- beginning in 1980's a large number of indigenous peasants moved from Mexico and Central America to enter the agro-export industries of northern Mexico and the United States
- All become discriminated against and become categorized as Indians despite being diverse
- our ideas of what it means to be indiginous is changing because of things like trans labor migration
- people move across the borders to engage in globalized capitalism
- today native people in LA can be considered transnationalized, bilingual, trilingual professionals, and urban proletarians
what are the basic characteristics of the oil industry in Ecuador? what does it have to do with Amazonian Indians in Ecuador
- the discovery of oil in the 20th century put the Amazon on the states radar
- oil became the answer to all of Ecuador's economic problems
- neoliberal reforms created under president Sixto Ballen
- mass environmental destruction especially by Texaco-Chevron and the Trans Andean pipeline that caused a massive oil spill
- Indians have organized against extractive industries locally, regionally, and nationally contesting to these environmental destructions
- Indians have argues that it doesnt matter where profits go these things need to be stopped from destroying their land
(DISCOURSE, HEGEMONY, and Resistance go together
- discourse is the way language is used in everyday practice as a communication system
- example: the discourse of environmentalism and how to protect the environment
- it is how people are talking or writing about a political subject implicit or explicitly, which can then influence how others perceive these topics
- you can connect or disagree with these discourses
- process through which subordinates internalize their rulers’ values and accept (to varying degrees) the ‘naturalness’ of domination
- people in power have hegemony, but it isn’t always easy: people can actively reject ideas that don’t resonate with their experiences.
- The construction of a discursive hegemonic framework: getting to power by convincing people that this is the way things out to be...the idea that you cant stop capitalism, economic growth through resource extraction
- the power to refuse the forces to conform to someone else’s wishes.
- Can be formal (complete withdrawal of compliance; direct contestation; demonstrations; protests; violence)
- Can be informal or concealed (i.e. subtle critiques; non compliance in certain instances more than others; in private spaces).
Who are the Zapatistas?
How did the EZLN form?
- Zapatistas, the army of national liberation
- Indiginous peasant Guerilla Movement
- EZLN (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional): named after Emiliano Zapata, a campesino who fought against the hacienda system in favor of agrarian reform
- protested against NAFTA in 1994
- they declared war against the mexican state and asserted the rights of indigenous populations for land and dignified rights.
- particularly how to distribute resources equally
- indiginous organizing is partly due to autonomy and fair distribution of benefits from exploitation of natural resources
- EZLN is relatively peaceful, but continues as a political force (and feared by some - like state armed forces)Some
- indigenous communities in rural Chiapas consider themselves ‘autonomous’ from the Mexican state (eg. give their own birth and death certificates, ID cards, etc.).
Understand the general trends of indigenous organizing in the region
- National governments initially encouraged indígenas to become campesinos (esp. in Bolivia & Peru)
- Re-indianization: the movement of indigenous valuing Indianness and of the right to be different
- Persistence of exclusionary racism; labeling Indians as ‘subversive,’ foreign, etc.
- Politics of recognition – the need to perform their indigenous differences
- Pueblos are not cohesive, homogenous, nor consensus-based… but rather, diverse and often in disagreements.
- Strategic political identities – self determination and autonomy (not complete separation).
- canadian mining company in Guatemala
- guatemalan goverment is seeking this foreign money, therefore allows Gold Corp to continue its exploitation of the land and people
- president and other elites are tasked at protecting the interest of Gold Corp by killing and pestering the people who resist Gold Corp
- Resistance with the people is due to water pollution and access as well as accumulation of private property