Parasitology Lab: Section 8 External parasites

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Parasitology Lab: Section 8 External parasites
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Section 8: External parasites
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  1. What makes up 3/4 of species that inhabit the earth?
    • Parasitic arthropods 
    • EX: Crayfish, ticks, mites
  2. Studies arthropods
    Entomologist
  3. Studies arthropods that effect humans
    Medical entomologist
  4. Studies arthropods that effect animals and humans
    Veterinary entomologist
  5. Traumas caused by arthropods
    • 1) Blood loss
    • 2) Immunity, hypersensitivity and toxicity
    • 3) Worry
    • 4) Secondary infections 
    • 5) Vector
    • 6) Myiasis
  6. 2 types of blood loss caused by arthropods
    • 1) Clinical anemia
    • 2) Aplastic anemia
  7. Total blood loss by parasites
    Clinical anemia
  8. Blood loss by natural effects
    Aplastic anemia
  9. Ascending paralysis by a "Brown tick" bite by a female around the shoulder is most common
    Tick paralysis
  10. How is worry a trauma caused by arthropods?
    Horn flies and back flies can bother the animal to a point where they wont eat and therefore lose weight and it becomes a financial loss for the rancher
  11. Secondary infections caused by arthropods
    Penetrating maggots make opportunities for bacteria to invade skin and set up infections
  12. Am screwworm scientific name
    Cochliomyia hominivorax
  13. No multiplication or molting of etiological agent in/on the vector
    Mechanical vector
  14. Molting in intermediate host
    Biological vector
  15. What is the most common vector for arthropod borne animal plagues
    Ticks
  16. Infection by fly larvae and eggs of any Genus and species
    Myiasis
  17. # 1 vector of disease worldwide
    Ticks
  18. #1 vector of disease in the US?
    Mosquito followed by ticks
  19. Bovine Piroplasmosis (Texas Fever) etiology
    • Babesia bigemina 
    • Babesia bovis
  20. Bovine Piroplasmosis vector
    Boophilus annulates
  21. Canine Piroplasmosis etiology
    Babesia canis
  22. Canine Piroplasmosis vector
    Rhipicephallus sanquineus
  23. Tick borne animal diseases (10)
    • Bovine Piroplasmosis
    • Canine Piroplasmosis 
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Q Fever
    • Ehrilichiosis 
    • Louping Ill
    • Western Equine Encephalitis 
    • Tularemia 
    • Canine Bartonellosis 
    • Lyme Disease
  24. Protozoan tick borne disease (2)
    • Bovine Piroplasmosis 
    • Canine Piroplasmosis
  25. Rickettsial tick borne diseases (3)
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever
    • Q fever 
    • Ehrlichiosis
  26. Viral tick borne diseases (2)
    • Louping Ill
    • Western Equine Encephalitis
  27. Bacterial tick borne diseases (2)
    • Tularemia 
    • Canine Bartonellosis
  28. Spirochetes tick borne disease (1)
    Lyme disease
  29. Vectors for rickettsial tick borne diseases
    • Dermacentor andersoni
    • Dermacentor varialbles
  30. Rocky mountain spotted fever etiology
    Rickettsia rickettsi
  31. Q Fever (Heart Water) etiology
    Coxiella burnetti
  32. Ehrlichiosis etiology
    • Ehrilichia canis
    • Ehrilichia chaffeensis
    • Ehrilichia ewingii
    • Ehrilichia ruminantium
  33. Ehrlichiosis can affect what species?
    Cats, dogs, humans, and wild animals
  34. Ehrlichiosis first reported in the US when?
    1963
  35. Ehrlichiosis clinical signs
    • Effects WBC and RBC, temp 106 F and above, thrombocytopenia, epistaxis 
    • Acute phase: depression, anorexia, loss of stamina, edema of limbs
    • Chronic phase: Mild to absent signs
  36. Louping Ill vector
    Ixodes ricinus
  37. Louping Ill symptoms
    • Causes ovine encephalomyelitis
    • Symptoms are neurological and once recovered the animal becomes immune
  38. Western Equine Encephalitis vector
    Rhipicephalus sanquineus
  39. Tularemia etiology
    Francisella tularensis
  40. Tularemia vector
    • Dermacentors sp.
    • Amblyomma sp.
    • Sheep is primary host
  41. Canine Bartonellosis etiology
    Bartonella vinsonii
  42. Canine Bartonellosis vector
    Rhipicephalus sanquineus
  43. Cat scratch fever
    Bartonella henselae found in 1992
  44. Lone star tick
    Amblyomma americanum
  45. Symptoms of canine bartonellosis
    Thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis
  46. Treatment for Canine Bartonellosis
    • Long term antibiotics, for 4-6 weeks 
    • Erythromycin and Azithromycin
  47. Lyme disease etiology most common in NA
    Borrelia burgdorferi
  48. Lyme disease vector
    • Ixodes scapularis (east coast)
    • Ixodes pacificus (west coast)
  49. Lyme disease pathogenesis
    • Multiples in tick and localizes in the saliva, tick takes blood meal from animal and injects bacteria. Takes 2-6 months to show signs in dogs. 
    • Test: Immunoblot test
  50. How to determine tick bite and lyme disease
    • 1) Verify tick bite
    • 2) Flulike symptoms 
    • 3) Positive blood test
    • 4) Bruise like rash (Erythema migrans "bulls eye")
  51. Treatment for lyme disease
    Antibiotic doxycycline for extended periods of time
  52. Mosquito borne animal diseases (3)
    • Malaria 
    • Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis 
    • Heartworm disease
  53. Protozoan mosquito borne disease (1)
    Malaria
  54. Viral mosquito borne disease (1)
    Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE)
  55. Filarids mosquito borne disease (1)
    Heartworm disease
  56. Malaria vector
    Anopheles
  57. Malaria etiology
    Plasmodium malariae
  58. Malaria means...
    Bad air
  59. Heartworm etiology
    Dirofilaria immitis
  60. Heartworm definitive host
    Dog
  61. Heartworm most common non definitive host
    • Ferret
    • Cat
  62. Flea borne animal diseases (3)
    • Bubonic Plague 
    • Acanthochelonema reconditum (blood filaria)
    • Diplydium caninum (tapeworm)
  63. Bubonic Plague etiology
    Yersinia pestis
  64. 2 forms of flies
    • Aquatic -primitive 
    • Terrestrial- highly adaptive
  65. Sub-order Orthorrhapha groups
    • 1) Group Nematocera
    • 2) Group Brachycera
    • 3) Group Cyclorrhapha
  66. Common housefly
    Musca domestica
  67. Face fly
    Musca autumnalis
  68. Stable fly
    Stomoxys calcitrans
  69. Hornfly
    Haematobia irritans
  70. Tsetse fly
    Glossina
  71. Family name for mosquitoes
    Culicidae
  72. Life cycle of mosquitoes
    • Egg laid on water, hatch in days, air breathers
    • Larvae molts 4 times in less than 2 weeks ending in pupae stage
    • Pupae develops into adult mosquito
  73. 4 stages of mosquitoes
    • Egg
    • Larvae
    • Pupae
    • Imago (adult)
  74. Mosquitoes are biological vectors for what diseases
    • Yellow fever
    • Malaria
    • Eastern equine encephalitis 
    • Dirofilara immitis
  75. Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for which types of diseases?
    • Virus
    • Bacteria
    • Protozoans
  76. Life cycle for Musca domestica
    • Egg laid on manure or organic matter
    • S1 (maggot) emerge in 1-2 days
    • S1 molts twice into S3
    • S3 moves to dry medium and pupates
    • Pupae (S4) molts to adult (imago) in 2-3 weeks
  77. Mechanical vector for summer sores of gastric worms
    • Stomoxys calcitrans
    • Musca domestica
  78. Life cycle of Musca autumnalis
    • Eggs deposited in cattle droppings
    • Eggs hatch and larvae emerge
    • Larvae molt to pupae and into imago
    • Imago fly away and continue cycle
  79. Mechanical vector for Thelazia lacrymalis
    Musca autumnalis
  80. Life cycle of Stomoxys calcitrans
    • Flies feed on blood from horse numerous times spreading blood borne virus 
    • Lay eggs in grass where they hatch and molt to imago
  81. Stomoxys calcitrans serve as a mechanical vector for what species?
    Habronema
  82. Life cycle of Haematobia irritans
    • Flies live on back and suck blood leaving host only to lay eggs in feces
    • Larvae hatch and feed on feces
    • Pupation occurs in 4-5 days
    • Imago development takes 11-12 days
  83. What serves as a mechanical vector for filarids?
    Haematobia irritans
  84. Tsetse fly transmits what disease?
    Sleeping sickness
  85. American screwworm
    Cochilomyia hominovorax
  86. American screwworm life cycle
    • Eggs laid on wounds or moist tissue
    • Eggs hatch in one day and maggots feed 
    • Larvae fall off host and pupate in 5-7 days
    • Adults emerge in 1-3 weeks and reproduce
    • Female commence to lay eggs
  87. Old world screwworm
    Chrysomya bezzian
  88. Family Hypodermatidae AKA
    Grubs, only live long enough to breed and deposit eggs
  89. Hypoderma lineatum life cycle
    • Eggs consumed orally and larvae penetrates in intestines and migrate for 5 months
    • Larvae spends 3 months in esophagus
    • Migrate to SQ tissues of back, open breathing holes and molt twice
    • Larvae mature and enlarge breathing holes, escape and fall on ground to pupate
    • Adults emerge and reproduce
  90. Hypoderma bovis
    • Eggs laid on cows skin and hatch
    • Larvae burrow into skin and migrate, accumulate around spinal canal
    • Larvae move to back of cow and punch holes for air, molt 2 more times, escape to ground and pupate
    • Adults emerge and reproduce
  91. Damage Hypoderma sp. causes to cows
    • Grubby back, damaged hide
    • If grubs rupture release histamine resulting in vascular collapse, shock and death
  92. Treatment for Hypoderma sp.
    Ivomec
  93. Family Gasterophilus AKA
    Bots
  94. Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • Egg laid on foreleg/shoulder of horse
    • Larvae move to tongue for 1 month
    • Move to stomach for 11 months
  95. Gasterophilus nasalis
    • Egg laid on inter mandibular spaces
    • Larvae move between molar teeth in 1 month
    • Move to duodenum for 11 months
  96. Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis
    • Eggs laid around lips
    • Larvae move to cheek in mucosa for 1 month
    • Move to duodenum for 11 months
  97. Why deworm 1 month after the 1st frost?
    Larvae are in the mouth for about a month then move to stomach/duodenum
  98. Sheep nasal fly
    Oestrus ovis
  99. Oestrus ovis life cycle
    • S1 larvae deposited in nostril of sheep
    • Larvae crawls into nasal passages and sinus
    • Molts occur in nasal passages in a few weeks and the bots crawl out and drop to ground to pupate
    • Adults emerge in 4-6 weeks, mate, lay eggs and die
    • If weather bad then S1 remains dormant in nasal passage
  100. Family Cuterebra most common
    Cuterebra palpebrae
  101. Cuterebra palpebrae life cycle
    • Eggs laid on plants along rabbit trails
    • Animal runs by and picks up egg on fur and hatch
    • Larvae crawls to moist area and penetrate, will stay in self limiting area for weeks
    • Larvae emerge and flies 
    • Breed and lay eggs along runs
  102. Change from a bot capsule to a fly
    Metamorphosis
  103. Lice facts
    • Live on hair/feathers of host
    • Transmission: host contact
    • Live and reproduce only on host 
    • Order: Mallophaga or Anoplura
  104. Order Anoplura, what type of lice?
    Sucking lice
  105. Order Mallophaga, what type of lice?
    Biting/chewing lice
  106. What kind of lice cycle do lice have?
    Incomplete metamorphosis
  107. Life cycle of lice
    • Eggs (nits) must have feathers/hair/clothes to attach to
    • Eggs hatch into tiny replicas of adult
    • Several molts occur with minor changes
  108. Human body lice
    Pediculus corporis
  109. What can lice transmit due to not bathing or cleaning clothes?
    Epidemic Typhus
  110. Mallophage (biting lice) examples
    • Trichodectes canis- dog
    • Herterodoxus spiniger- dog
    • Felicola subrostrata- cats
    • Damalinia equi- horse/bovine/ovis/caprae
  111. Anoplura (sucking lice)
    Linognathus setosus- dogs
  112. 4 things that produce pathogenic pruritis
    • Fleas
    • Atopy
    • Food allergies
    • Sarcoptic mange
  113. Flea bite allergies are a result of what?
    Hypersensitivity to flea saliva
  114. Fleas are vectors for what diseases?
    • Bubonic plague
    • Endemic Typhus
    • Lice
    • Tapeworms
  115. Most common flea
    Ctenocephalides felis
  116. When does copulation in fleas occur?
    After a blood meal
  117. Can flea eggs be laid on and off a host?
    Yes
  118. Flea life cycle can take only 16 days under what ideal temperature and humidity?
    • Temperature: 65-80
    • Humidity: 70%
  119. Flea of the dog
    Ctenocephalides canis
  120. Flea of humans
    Pulex irritans
  121. What do flea larvae feed on?
    Flea feces and sebum
  122. Life cycle of the flea
    • White egg laid on ground, hatch in 3-4 weeks
    • Yellowish white larvae molt in 1 week
    • Reddish brown larvae molt in 1 week
    • Opaque white larvae molt in 1 week and spin cocoon
    • Cocoon erupts in 2 weeks and produce pupa
    • Pupa rest 3-4 weeks and molt to adult 
    • Can live off host for 6 months
  123. 4 conditions that will kill flea
    • 1) Water
    • 2) Light- bright sun
    • 3) Humidity below 50%
    • 4) Altitude above 5,000 feet
  124. 3 goals of flea control
    • 1) Control fleas on dog
    • 2) Control fleas in house
    • 3) Prevent fleas from entering the house
  125. First flea preventative
    • Ovitrol Plus
    • Topical
    • "Precor"
  126. Fipronil
    • Frontline "Top spot"
    • Company: Merial
    • Topical
  127. Frontline facts
    • Used on dogs and cats
    • Kills adult fleas and ticks
    • Effective for 25 days
    • Time for elimination of fleas for dogs: 24 hrs
    • Time for elimination for cats: 24-36 hrs
  128. Frontline Plus facts
    • Methoprene added 
    • Fipronil inhibits GABA transmission by blocking Glutamate-gated Cl channels
    • Methoprene allows egg and larvae to be killed instead of just the adult
  129. Frontline "Tritak" facts
    • Used for dogs and cats
    • Fipronil, methoprene and cyphenothrin for dogs
    • Fipronil, methoprene and etofenprox for cats
    • Kills fleas and ticks for 30 days
  130. Imidacloprid
    • Advantage
    • Company: Bayer
    • Topical
  131. Advantage facts
    • Used for dogs and cats
    • Kills only adult fleas
    • Effective for 25 days
    • Prevents synaptic binding of acetlycholine 
    • Time of flea elimination for dogs: 12 hr
    • Time elimination for cats: 24 hr
    • Can be used on rabbits and ferrets
  132. Advantage Multi facts
    • Imidacloprid and moxidectin
    • Topical every 30 days
    • Kills adult fleas, otodectes cynotis , hooks and rounds
    • For cats 9 weeks or older or 5.1-9 lbs
    • Dogs start at 7 weeks
  133. Advocate facts
    • European Advantage Multi
    • Imdiacloprid and moxidectin 
    • In dogs kills: Flea, HW, hooks, rounds, trichuris, sarcoptic mange, otodectes cynotis, demodex and lice
    • In cats kill: Flea, HW, hooks, rounds, and Otodectes cynotis
  134. Off label use of Advantage multi in the US
    • Treatment of Demodicosis once a week for 4-6 weeks until skin scrapings come back negative 
    • Treatment of Sarcoptic mange once every 2 weeks until negative scrapings
  135. Triforce for dogs facts
    • Topical, monthly
    • Dont use on puppies under 12 weeks 
    • Kills and repels fleas for a month, kills flea egg and larvae for up to 9 weeks
    • Kills and repels ticks for a month
    • Kills and repels mosquitoes
  136. Triforce for cats facts
    • Dont use under 12 weeks of age or under 2.2 lbs
    • Kills adult, larvae and eggs of fleas
    • Prevents ticks and mosquitoes
  137. Lufenuron
    • Program
    • Topical
    • Company: Novartis
  138. Program facts
    • Stops fleas by inhibiting life cycle
    • Used for dogs/cats
    • Monthly
  139. Lufenuron and Milbemycin oxime
    • Sentinel
    • Doesnt kill the flea but if flea bites animal they ingest lufenuron and ingest so flea eggs wont develop
  140. Milbemycin oxime, Proziquantel and Lufenuron =
    Sentinel spectrum
  141. Flea Allergy Dermatitis in dogs AKA
    Flea bite hypersensitivity
  142. Flea Allergy Dermatitis in cats AKA
    Milliary Dermatitis
  143. Nitenpyram
    • Capstar
    • Company:Novartis 
    • Pill
  144. Capstar facts
    • Kills adult fleas only
    • 90% effective in dogs working in 4 hrs and 6 in cats
    • Can be given to nursing and pregnant animals
    • Safe for animal 4 weeks of age and 2 lbs and up
  145. How to use Capstar effectively
    • 1) Eliminate hitch hiker flea, can be used alongside monthly preventative
    • 2) Eliminate existing problem 
    • 3) Prior to boarding, surgery, or shelter
    • 4) Prior to release from clinic
    • 5) Excellent for American Screwworm as well
  146. Fipronil and Cyphenothrin
    • Parastar Plus 
    • Company: Novartis
  147. Imidacloprid and Permethrin
    • K9 Advantix 
    • Topical, monthly 
    • Company: Bayer
  148. K9 Advantix facts
    • Ticks, fleas and mosquitoes 
    • Permethrin kills cats due to liver lacking enzymes necessary to break down
  149. K9 Advantix II
    • Imdiacloprid, Permethrin and Pyripoxyfen 
    • Kills ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, biting flies, and lice
  150. Selamectin
    • Revolution
    • Topical
    • Company: Pfizer
  151. Revolution facts
    • Kills adults fleas and prevent eggs from hatching 
    • Kills slower than other spot ons
    • Can be used with ferrets and rabbits
    • Drug of choice for ear mites and scabies
    • Also controls HW, Otodectes cynotis, scabies, hooks and rounds
  152. Dinotefuran, Pyripoxyfen and Permethrin
    • Vectra 3D
    • Company: Summit- Vet Pharm Corp
    • Topical
  153. Vectra 3D facts
    Kills fleas, ticks and mosquitoes
  154. Metaflumizone and Amitraz
    • Promeris 
    • Company: Ft. Dodge
    • Topical
  155. Promeris facts
    • Kills fleas (methaflumizone) and ticks (amitraz)
    • Amitraz not in cat version
    • Amitraz is drug of choice for demodectic mange in dogs, reverse agent is Yohimbine
  156. Spinosad
    • Comfortis
    • Chewable tablet
    • Company: Eli Lilly
  157. Comfortis facts
    • Dogs 14 weeks or older, no cats
    • Vomiting is a common sign, give with food
    • Monthly
    • If given with Ivermectin can cause ataxia, lethargy, and seizures
  158. First oral flea preventative
    • Proban
    • An organophosphate approved by the FDA in 1976
  159. Spinosad and Milbemycin oxime facts
    • Trifexis
    • Chewable tablets, monthly
    • Prevents HW, fleas, hooks, rounds and whips
    • Used on animals 8 weeks or older
  160. Permethrin
    • Kiltik
    • Company: Bayer
    • No longer made
    • Dogs 12 weeks or older
  161. Emodepside and Praziquantel
    • Profender 
    • Topical
    • Company: Bayer 
    • Used for cats
  162. Over the counter flea/tick control products
    • Bio Spot
    • Breathru!
  163. Early flea collar
    Ovitrol flea egg collar
  164. New flea collar
    • Seresto 
    • Bayer company
    • Prevents for 8 months
    • Releases imidacloprid and flumethrin 
    • Kills fleas 24 hrs after use and 48 hrs for ticks
  165. Ivermectin topically for ears
    Acarexx
  166. Flea myths
    • Garlic and brewers yeast
    • Ultrasonic collars
    • Orange half rub on dogs back and stomach- oil would need to be extracted and concentrated
    • Human lice shampoo- will kill adult fleas
    • Dawn or oatmeal- will kill fleas and ticks
  167. Cockroaches
    • Order: Orthoptera
    • Family: Blattidae
    • Biological/mechanical vector of human and animal borne diseases
  168. Beetles
    • Order: Coleopters
    • Intermediate host for Spiroscerca lupi
  169. Disease that lice causes
    Trombiculosis
  170. Ctenocephalides felis and canis are intermediate host for which parasites?
    • Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm)
    • Acanthochelonema reconditum (blood filarid)
  171. Flea feces and saliva in cat nail beds/bites transmit what bacteria?
    • Bartonella henseale and vinsonii
    • Cat scratch disease
  172. Fleas consume how much of host blood?
    5%
  173. Flea activity on the host (3)
    • Flea mate within 12 hours
    • Eggs produced within 24 hours
    • Females produce 27 eggs per day
  174. Fleas are attracted to (5) things
    • Dark clothes
    • Lactic acid
    • Carbon dioxide 
    • Animals in the dark
    • Dry places
  175. For every 1 flea you see there are __ in different stages
    19 more
  176. In regards to fleas, where eggs have been laid
    Source point
  177. What percentage of entire flea population is found on the animal at any one time
    5-10%
  178. 2 ways to eliminate fleas
    • Kill the flea
    • Interference of reproduction
  179. Ringworm AKA
    Dermatophytes
  180. IGR the blocks formation of new cuticle in fly larvae, S1 to S2 molt doesnt survive
    Cyromazine
  181. IGR used for chickens
    Larvadex 1% Premix
  182. Contact/systemic insecticide that interferes with chitin and prevents shedding and hatching, bolus for cows
    Diflubenzuron
  183. Blow flies
    Calliphorids
  184. Fresh flies
    Sarcophagids
  185. Bee, wasp, hornets
    Female ovipositor (stinger) breaks off in wound producing redness, edema, inflammation, anaphylactic and can be treated with 1:10,000 epinephrine IV and steroids
  186. Yeast examples
    • Candida albicans
    • Malassezia pachydermatitis 
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Blastomyces dermatitis
    • Histoplasma capsulatum
  187. Candida albicans
    • Normal on mucus membranes
    • Seen after prolonged antibiotics, skin therapy
    • Diagnose by taking wet mounts from skin scraping 
    • Treat with Thiabendazole or Surolan
  188. Malassezia pachydermatitis
    • Most common cause of otitis externa and otodectes cynotis 
    • Diagnose by gram stained smears
  189. Ringworm effects what percentage of cats and dogs?
    • Cats 90% 
    • Dogs 70%
  190. Confined to humans
    Anthropophilic
  191. Parasites of animals
    Zoophilic
  192. Free living saprophytes in soil
    Geophilic
  193. Parasites found in the mouth of the dog
    • Trichomonas canistomae 
    • Toxoplasma gondii
  194. Parasites found in the esophagus and stomach of the dog
    • Spirocerca lupi 
    • Physaloptera rara 
    • Physaloptera praeputialis
  195. Parasites of the family Mastigophora
    • Trichomonas canistomae
    • Toxoplasma gondii
  196. Parasites found in the small intestines of the dog
    • Toxocara canis
    • Toxascaris leonina
    • Ancylostoma caninum 
    • Ancylostoma braziliense 
    • Uncinaria stenocephala
    • Strongyloides stercoralis 
    • Trichinella spiralis (uncooked meat)
  197. Tapeworms found in the small intestines of the dog
    • Taenia pisiformis
    • Echinococcus granulosus 
    • Dipylidium caninum 
    • Diphyllobothrim latum
  198. Trematodes in the small intestines of the dog
    • Alaria canis
    • Nanopyetus salmincola
  199. Alaria canis family name
    Diplostomatidae
  200. Protozoans found in the dog
    • Isospora canis
    • Isospora bigemina
    • Isospora felis 
    • Giardia
  201. Parasites found in the cecum/colon of the dog
    • Trichuris vulpis
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • Entamoeba coli
    • Balantidium coli
  202. Most common blood disease
    Haemobartonella
  203. 2 types of Haemobartonella
    • Mycoplasma haemofelis
    • Haemobartonella canis
  204. Mycoplasma haemofelis AKA
    Feline Infectious Anemia
  205. Blood disease spread by ticks and natural host is the bobcat
    Cytauxzoon felis

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