Latin America Final Week 8

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Latin America Final Week 8
2015-05-18 22:38:43

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  1. what is meant by “Campesino” and what do they do?
    • Were the majority until the 20th Century
    • Can be indigenous or mestizo
    • usually considered poor
    • produce food for the internal market
    • State and urban population depends on the peasantry,but...
    • Peasantry does not really depend on the urban population and can challenge capitalist models of export-led growth and industrialization.
  2. What is the Agrarian Problem?
    • How to make food for everyone?
    • How todistribute land and become most productive?
  3. What is meant by “agrarian structure,”?
    • set of institutions, norms, social,
    • political and economic relationships governing the access to and use of land as a productive resource.
  4. What is the “the agrarian questions,”?
  5. What is the “agrarian reform” – and its potential consequences in LA?
    • can be reformed to suit the desires of local elites;
    • foreign corporations

    Or to meet the needs of campesinos

    • Eg.
    • “Land to whomever farms it;” “No land can be left idle for extended periods of
    • time,” etc.
  6. who is “La Via Campesina;”(the peasant way)?
    According to Boyer and Penalva, how it did not become more popular in Honduras?
    • radical international peasant organization of small and medium-scale farmers, rural women, farm workers and indigenous agrarian communities in response to neoliberalism
    • Emphasizes “food sovereignty” more than just “food security” and the producers’ control over land, seeds, and water
    • Boyer and Penalva argue that they dont see the need to support the more radical organizations because
  7. What is food sovereignty
    • involves putting the food system into the communities hands
    • giving control over quantity and quality of what is produced and how it is consumed
    • is not subjected to fluctuating internal markets
  8. What is food security
    • means literally just having access to food
    • no choice as to how it is produced or consumed
    • taking what is available
    • often used interchangeably with food soverignty, but it considerably different
  9. Who is Rigborta Menchu
    • Nobel peace prize winner
    • Guatemalan peasant who claims link to the Mayan culture (quichua)
    • involved with social reforms
    • addressed socioeconomic inequalities in the region, particularly against landless peasants
  10. what lead up to the US-backed military coup against Guatemalan president Arbenz?

    what happened in the aftermath?
    • In guatemala president Arevalo - supported the peasantry, but couldnt do much about getting rid of the UFC because they were in charge of employing the vast majority of the population
    • Arevalo began to enforce the taxes that UFC had to pay because they never legally reported the correct amount of their revenue
    • President Arbenz - wanted to build a highway to bypass relying on these monopolies. He reduced rail way tariffs and so the UFC laid off thousands of workers in response to this.
    • Arbenz then decided to confiscate thousands of farm acres from the company
    • he decided to look at what the UFC land was worth and decided to pay them what the land was worth according to their tax documents
    • UFC refused to pay the amount of what the land was worth
    • in spite of this, a CIA sponsored coup is initiated and Arbenz is ousted
    • a us military government is then put in place
    • elites in both latin america and north america were responsible for making these rules and policies
  11. What are the implications (suggestions) of the “Alliance for Progress”
    • Kennedy's Aim to support moderate social reforms as a means to prevent socialist revolutions, trying to prevent another Cuban revolution
    • These reforms aimed to:
    • calm landless angry peasantry…
    • while at the same time not fundamentally undermining economic elites
    • and never appearing too far to the Left…to avoid a coup!