Final Vocab

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Final Vocab
2015-05-18 00:25:01
Vocab for final exam
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  1. Activated Complex
    • An unstable species formed in an effective collision that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or reform from reactants
    • -ALSO : an unstable species involved in an effective collision of reactants.
  2. Active site
    Region of an enzyme formed by specific amino acids side chains
  3. Activation Energy
    • The minimum energy required for reactants to react.
    • - minimum amount of energy that the reactants must have (prior to collision) in order for a reaction to take place (when they collide)
  4. Activity
    The ratio of concentration or pressure to a standard concentration or pressure
  5. Adduct
    The product of a Lewis acid-base reaction characterized by the formation of a new covalent bond
  6. Alloy
    Mixtures of elements that have a metallic character
  7. Amphoteric
    Able to act as either an acid or base
  8. Arrhenius Equation
    An equation that expressed the exponential relationship between temperature and the rate constant
  9. Arrhenius Acid
    A substance that yields H30(+) ions when dissolved in water
  10. Arrhenius Base
    yields OH-
  11. Autoionization
    A reaction in which two molecules of a substance react to give ions
  12. Bronsted-Lowry acid
    A proton donator
  13. Bronsted-Lowry base
    • A proton acceptor
    • also: a biological macromolecule that acts as a catalyst.
  14. Brownian motion
    erratic change of speed and direction
  15. Buffer
    • A solution that undergoes a limited change in pH upon addition of a small amount of acid or base
    • - a solution of a weak acid or base and its salt.
  16. Buffer Capacity
    The amount of acid or base that a given buffer can absorb before its pH changes by one unit (as halpin defines it for our class specifically)
  17. Catalyst
    A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change
  18. Chemical activity
    the unitless ratio of concentration or pressure to a standard concentration or base.
  19. Charge Density
    ratio of charge to volume
  20. Coagulation
    Colloidal particles combine until they form clusters too large and heavy to remain dispersed.
  21. Colloids
    • somewhere in between true solutions and unstable heterogeneous mixtures (or suspensions) are stable are the stable but not homogenous mixtures known as colloids(15) OR solute like substance is distributed throughout a dispersing (solvent like) substance
    • A heterogeneous mixture in which a solute-like phase is dispersed throughout a solvent-like phase
  22. Common ion effect
    when an ion produced by the reaction is introduced from another source before the equilibrium is reached (18)
  23. Coordinate Covalent Bond
    A bond formed when one atom donates both electrons to form the shared pair
  24. Conjugate pair
    • Two species related to each other through the gain or loss of a proton
    • - An acid and a base that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton
  25. Crenation
    • when the osmotic pressure of the intracellular fluid of a red blood cell is lower than that of the surrounding cell, water will flow out of the cell, causing it to shrink
    • - solute concentration inside the cell is lower so the solvent flows out of the cell(15)
  26. Delocalized Electrons
    electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or covalent bond. Delocalized electrons are contained within molecular orbitals that extend over several adjacent atoms
  27. Dynamic Equilibrium
    The condition in which the rate of the forward process equals the rate of the reverse process.
  28. Distillation-
    process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation. It uses the volatility of the substance which is its tendency to turn into a vapor.
  29. Elementary Reaction
    a reaction that describes a single molecular event in a proposed reaction mechanism
  30. Electrolysis
    chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions.
  31. Electrolytic Cell
    An electrochemical cell in which the redox reaction is not spontaneous
  32. Equilibrium constant
    The value obtained when equilibrium concentrations and pressures are substituted into the reaction quotient.
  33. Endpoint
    moment at which a substance known as an indicator changes color
  34. Entropy: S= k ln(W)
    • k=boltzmann constant 1.38x10^-23
    • W= # of microstates consistent with macrostate of the system
  35. Flocculation
    a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution
  36. Frequency Factor
    the product of the collision frequency Z and an orientation probability factor p specific for a reaction
  37. Fractional Crystallization
    A procedure in which we separate two or more solids by dissolving the entire mixture into a particular solvent, and then adjusting the temperature so one component will crystallize while the others remain in solution.
  38. Hemolysis
    • when the osmotic pressure of the intracellular fluid of a red blood cell is higher than that of the solution which surrounds the cell, causing it to swell and burst
    • - solute concentration inside the cell is higher, so solvent flows into the cell(15)
  39. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
    equation for calculating the pH of a buffer system
  40. Henry’s Law
    A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution is proportional to the pressure of that gas over the solution
  41. Heterogeneous mixture
    solution that isn’t always recognizably nonuniform(15)
  42. Heterogeneous catalyst
    a catalyst that differs in phase from the reacting species (16)
  43. Homogenous catalyst
    a catalyst that is the same in phase from the reacting species (16)
  44. Hybrid Orbital
    An atomic orbital formed during bonding from the mixing of nonequivalent orbitals in a given atom
  45. Hydration
    solvation in water
  46. Indicator
    • A species whose color is different in acid and in base
    • A weak acid that exhibits a different color than does its conjugate base when in solution
  47. Intermediate
    A substance that is formed and used up during the overall reaction and therefore does not appear in the overall equation
  48. Law of Mass Action
    • The rules according to which the equilibrium constant expression is formulated.
    • The rules according to which the equilibrium constant expression is formulated.
  49. Lewis Acid
    An electron pair acceptor
  50. Lewis Base
    An electron-pair donor
  51. Leveling Effect
    • The inability of a solvent to distinguish the strength of an acid stronger than the conjugate acid of the solvent.
    • An hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in an oxoacid.
  52. Ligands
    ions or molecules that take a spatial arrangement about the metal cation to form a complex ion
  53. Lipid Bilayer
    polar head, nonpolar tails
  54. Microstate
    Each way in which the particles and the energy of our system can be distriputed within the given volume, at the given temperature; All microstates give the same measured values of P, V, n, T and E
  55. Miscible
    Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions, forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to liquids, but applies also to solids and gases.
  56. Molality
    The concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute divided by kg of the solvent
  57. Molar Solubility
    # of moles of substance that will dissolve to form one liter of saturated solution at a particular temperature (** Units are mol/L → THIS IS NOT MOLARITY even though they have the same units)
  58. Molecularity
    The number of reactant particles involved in an elementary step
  59. Node
    Zero Electron Density
  60. Nucleon
    Any of the particles within the nucleus of an atom
  61. Nucleic acids
    unbranched polymers made up of monomers (mononucleotides)
  62. Neutralization
    Process that occurs when H+ from an acid combines with an OH- from a base to form a H2O
  63. Osmosis
    The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater concentration
  64. Pi bond
    A covalent bond formed by sideways overlap of two orbitals
  65. precipitation
    a reaction in which 2 soluble ionic compounds form insoluble product.
  66. pH
    The negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
  67. Polyprotic Acid
    a molecule that contains more than one acidic Hyrdogen
  68. Positron
    The antimatter particle having the mass of an electron
  69. protein
    unbranched polymers formed from about 20 different monomers called amino acids
  70. Raoult’s Law
    A statement that says that the vapor pressure of solvent above a solution is equal to the mole fraction of that solvent time the vapor pressure of the pure solvent
  71. Rate determining step
    the slowest step which the rate of reaction will depend on
  72. Rate constant
    The proportionality factor that relates reaction rate to reactant concentrations
  73. Reaction Mechanism
    A detailed picture, or model, of how a chemical reaction occurs.
  74. Reaction Order
    • The power to which a reactant is raised in the rate law
    • The exponent of a reactant concentration in a rate law
  75. Reduction
    The gain of electrons
  76. Reducing Agent
    The species that is being oxidized
  77. Reversible Processes
    when a system is infinitesimally close to equilibrium, which results in something happening spontaneously. The direction of change can be reversed.
  78. Saturated Solution
    A solution in equilibrium with the solid form of its solute
  79. Sigma bond
    A covalent bond formed by head-on overlap of two orbitals.
  80. Solution
    homogeneous mixture in which particles are invisible.
  81. Solubility
    • The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
    • how many grams of substance will dissolve to form one liter of saturated solution at a particular temperature
  82. Solvation
    • the process of attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. As ions dissolve in a solvent they spread out and become surrounded by solvent molecules
    • Surrounding solute with solvent
  83. Suspension
    heterogenous mixture containing particles large enough to be visibly distant from the surrounding fluid
  84. Substrate
    A reactant that binds to the active site in an enzyme catalyzed reaction
  85. Titration
    The gradual addition of a solution of accurately known concentration to another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction between the two solutions is complete
  86. The reaction quotient (Q) measures...
    • the relative amounts of products and reactants present during a reaction at a particular point in time. The reaction quotient aids in figuring out which direction a reaction is likely to proceed, given either the pressures or the concentrations of the reactants and the products. The Q value can be compared to the Equilibrium Constant, K, to determine the direction of the reaction that is taking place
    • - A number equal to the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentration, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient at some point other than equilibrium
  87. The First Law of Thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed
  88. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    The Entropy of the universe is positive and is increasing
  89. Third Law Thermodynamics
    a perfect crystal has zero entropy at a temperature of absolute zero
  90. Transmutation
    The conversion of one element into another through a nuclear reaction
  91. Tyndall Effect
    • when a beam of light passes through a colloid, the beam that is visible is attributed to the Tyndall Effect(15) OR simply light scattering
    • scattering of light by a colloid
  92. van’t Hoff factor
    reflects the (possible) dissociation of the solute (15)
  93. Viscosity
    The thickness of a fluid and its resistance to flow. For example, honey has a higher viscosity than water
  94. Voltaic Cell/Galvanic Cell
    when the reaction in a cell occurs spontaneously
  95. Electrochemical cell
    when ions flow through an aqueous medium to prevent charge build-up
  96. Anode
    • electrode at which oxidation takes place
    • - an ox
  97. Cathode
    • electrode at which reduction takes place
    • - a red cat
  98. Salt Bridge
    prevent rapid mixing of solutions, help ions pass through from one compartment to another
  99. Electrical Current
    flow of charge
  100. Cell Voltage/Potential
    the electromotive force
  101. Cell Diagram
    • describes the anode, the salt bridge, the cathode
    • (with phase boundaries represented by vertical lines)