An unstable species formed in an effective collision that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or reform from reactants
-ALSO : an unstable species involved in an effective collision of reactants.
Region of an enzyme formed by specific amino acids side chains
The minimum energy required for reactants to react.
- minimum amount of energy that the reactants must have (prior to collision) in order for a reaction to take place (when they collide)
The ratio of concentration or pressure to a standard concentration or pressure
The product of a Lewis acid-base reaction characterized by the formation of a new covalent bond
Mixtures of elements that have a metallic character
Able to act as either an acid or base
An equation that expressed the exponential relationship between temperature and the rate constant
A substance that yields H30(+) ions when dissolved in water
A reaction in which two molecules of a substance react to give ions
A proton donator
A proton acceptor
also: a biological macromolecule that acts as a catalyst.
erratic change of speed and direction
A solution that undergoes a limited change in pH upon addition of a small amount of acid or base
- a solution of a weak acid or base and its salt.
The amount of acid or base that a given buffer can absorb before its pH changes by one unit (as halpin defines it for our class specifically)
A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change
the unitless ratio of concentration or pressure to a standard concentration or base.
ratio of charge to volume
Colloidal particles combine until they form clusters too large and heavy to remain dispersed.
somewhere in between true solutions and unstable heterogeneous mixtures (or suspensions) are stable are the stable but not homogenous mixtures known as colloids(15) OR solute like substance is distributed throughout a dispersing (solvent like) substance
A heterogeneous mixture in which a solute-like phase is dispersed throughout a solvent-like phase
Common ion effect
when an ion produced by the reaction is introduced from another source before the equilibrium is reached (18)
Coordinate Covalent Bond
A bond formed when one atom donates both electrons to form the shared pair
Two species related to each other through the gain or loss of a proton
- An acid and a base that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton
when the osmotic pressure of the intracellular fluid of a red blood cell is lower than that of the surrounding cell, water will flow out of the cell, causing it to shrink
- solute concentration inside the cell is lower so the solvent flows out of the cell(15)
electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or covalent bond. Delocalized electrons are contained within molecular orbitals that extend over several adjacent atoms
The condition in which the rate of the forward process equals the rate of the reverse process.
process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation. It uses the volatility of the substance which is its tendency to turn into a vapor.
a reaction that describes a single molecular event in a proposed reaction mechanism
chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions.
An electrochemical cell in which the redox reaction is not spontaneous
The value obtained when equilibrium concentrations and pressures are substituted into the reaction quotient.
moment at which a substance known as an indicator changes color
Entropy: S= k ln(W)
k=boltzmann constant 1.38x10^-23
W= # of microstates consistent with macrostate of the system
a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake; either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution
the product of the collision frequency Z and an orientation probability factor p specific for a reaction
A procedure in which we separate two or more solids by dissolving the entire mixture into a particular solvent, and then adjusting the temperature so one component will crystallize while the others remain in solution.
when the osmotic pressure of the intracellular fluid of a red blood cell is higher than that of the solution which surrounds the cell, causing it to swell and burst
- solute concentration inside the cell is higher, so solvent flows into the cell(15)
equation for calculating the pH of a buffer system
A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution is proportional to the pressure of that gas over the solution
solution that isn’t always recognizably nonuniform(15)
a catalyst that differs in phase from the reacting species (16)
a catalyst that is the same in phase from the reacting species (16)
An atomic orbital formed during bonding from the mixing of nonequivalent orbitals in a given atom
solvation in water
A species whose color is different in acid and in base
A weak acid that exhibits a different color than does its conjugate base when in solution
A substance that is formed and used up during the overall reaction and therefore does not appear in the overall equation
Law of Mass Action
The rules according to which the equilibrium constant expression is formulated.
The rules according to which the equilibrium constant expression is formulated.
An electron pair acceptor
An electron-pair donor
The inability of a solvent to distinguish the strength of an acid stronger than the conjugate acid of the solvent.
An hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in an oxoacid.
ions or molecules that take a spatial arrangement about the metal cation to form a complex ion
polar head, nonpolar tails
Each way in which the particles and the energy of our system can be distriputed within the given volume, at the given temperature; All microstates give the same measured values of P, V, n, T and E
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions, forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to liquids, but applies also to solids and gases.
The concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute divided by kg of the solvent
# of moles of substance that will dissolve to form one liter of saturated solution at a particular temperature (** Units are mol/L → THIS IS NOT MOLARITY even though they have the same units)
The number of reactant particles involved in an elementary step
Zero Electron Density
Any of the particles within the nucleus of an atom
unbranched polymers made up of monomers (mononucleotides)
Process that occurs when H+ from an acid combines with an OH- from a base to form a H2O
The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater concentration
A covalent bond formed by sideways overlap of two orbitals
a reaction in which 2 soluble ionic compounds form insoluble product.
The negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration
a molecule that contains more than one acidic Hyrdogen
The antimatter particle having the mass of an electron
unbranched polymers formed from about 20 different monomers called amino acids
A statement that says that the vapor pressure of solvent above a solution is equal to the mole fraction of that solvent time the vapor pressure of the pure solvent
Rate determining step
the slowest step which the rate of reaction will depend on
The proportionality factor that relates reaction rate to reactant concentrations
A detailed picture, or model, of how a chemical reaction occurs.
The power to which a reactant is raised in the rate law
The exponent of a reactant concentration in a rate law
The gain of electrons
The species that is being oxidized
when a system is infinitesimally close to equilibrium, which results in something happening spontaneously. The direction of change can be reversed.
A solution in equilibrium with the solid form of its solute
A covalent bond formed by head-on overlap of two orbitals.
homogeneous mixture in which particles are invisible.
The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
how many grams of substance will dissolve to form one liter of saturated solution at a particular temperature
the process of attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. As ions dissolve in a solvent they spread out and become surrounded by solvent molecules
Surrounding solute with solvent
heterogenous mixture containing particles large enough to be visibly distant from the surrounding fluid
A reactant that binds to the active site in an enzyme catalyzed reaction
The gradual addition of a solution of accurately known concentration to another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction between the two solutions is complete
The reaction quotient (Q) measures...
the relative amounts of products and reactants present during a reaction at a particular point in time. The reaction quotient aids in figuring out which direction a reaction is likely to proceed, given either the pressures or the concentrations of the reactants and the products. The Q value can be compared to the Equilibrium Constant, K, to determine the direction of the reaction that is taking place
- A number equal to the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentration, each raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient at some point other than equilibrium
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Entropy of the universe is positive and is increasing
Third Law Thermodynamics
a perfect crystal has zero entropy at a temperature of absolute zero
The conversion of one element into another through a nuclear reaction
when a beam of light passes through a colloid, the beam that is visible is attributed to the Tyndall Effect(15) OR simply light scattering
scattering of light by a colloid
van’t Hoff factor
reflects the (possible) dissociation of the solute (15)
The thickness of a fluid and its resistance to flow. For example, honey has a higher viscosity than water
Voltaic Cell/Galvanic Cell
when the reaction in a cell occurs spontaneously
when ions flow through an aqueous medium to prevent charge build-up
electrode at which oxidation takes place
- an ox
electrode at which reduction takes place
- a red cat
prevent rapid mixing of solutions, help ions pass through from one compartment to another
flow of charge
the electromotive force
describes the anode, the salt bridge, the cathode
(with phase boundaries represented by vertical lines)