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2015-05-18 18:42:40
Marx nicole

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  1. Dialectical Materialism - def
    • History is a "dialectical" movement in which a thesis is challenged by an antithesis.
    • When these confict a new principle emerges as a synthesis of the two
  2. Dialectical Materialism - Hegel
    • idealist
    • engine of world change was clash of ideas
  3. Dialectical Materialism - Bailey
    • Marx turned Hegel system on its head
    • Instead of conflict between ideas driving change
    • argued world contains own built in internal conflicts
    • political ideas spring from this conflict rather than cause it
  4. Dialectical Materialism - built in conflicts
    • built in conflicts economic in nature
    • generated by people's attempts to satisfy material needs
    • = dialectical materialism
  5. Hegel - alienation
    • Young Hegelians - human nature in condition of alienation
    • progress through Dialectical transformation
    • Hegel - alienation deficiency in the mind
    • not yet fully conscious
    • limited nature of minds - unfulfilled
  6. Marx - religion and alienation
    • "opium of the people"
    • subject to God's law
    • negate their wills in favour of His
    • Young Hegelians - reject doctrines!
    • religion is a human construct
  7. Marx's final view on alienation
    • cause is not defiency of minds but material conditions
    • economic relations as the material cause
    • religion alienating but not primary cause
  8. Capitalism as a cause of alienation - human nature
    • humans defined by ability to produce/work
    • capitalism distorts our productive nature
    • degraded unfitting
  9. critique for alienation in capitalism
    • Wolff - 
    • is alienation a consequence specifically of the capitalist form of production? or is it a consequence of modern technology more generally?
  10. Capitalism - how human nature related to alienation
    • profit motive requires capitalists to adopt efficient methods of production
    • labour - specialised/boring/repetitive
    • worker subordinate to a machine
    • potential of worker is frustrated
  11. capitalism alienation - wage labour
    • Economic Theory (Adam Smith)
    • production of goods dominated by wage labour
    • labour is a commodity that is bought/sold
    • value of commodified goods defined by exchange value = commidity fetishisation
  12. wage labour leads to alienation
    • workers sell their labour to survive
    • alienated no control
    • estranged from capitalists who treat them as a means to end profit
    • workers alienated from each other through competition
  13. Capitalist market relations affecting our lives
    • make us egotistic
    • calculating
    • conduct our relationships contractually (trade agreements, civil society, marriage)
    • economics affects human lives AND nature
  14. Bailey - alienation "labour theory"
    • the fair value of anything in free market is determined by the amount of labour it took to produce it
    • Marx argues capital adds no value to goods that go beyond the labour it takes to produce them
    • capitalists appropriate "surplus value" - profits
  15. Wolff - in defense of free market
    • Capitalists receive fair return for use of property
    • risk of their money
    • supply of raw materials and machinery
    • BUT are they entitled to own this property?
    • unjust laws to take control of property
    • manipulate legal system in order to maintain it
    • "political committee"
  16. social class divisions
    • alienation perpetuates social class divisions
    • main institution of capitalist soc is preserving interests of capitalists
    • class rule
    • oppression of the majority by minority
  17. social class divisions - critque
    • Marx argues social classes not permanent
    • products of phases in the development of economic production relations
    • scope for change

    • Marx undermines subjective interpretations of social world and class
    • subjective interpretations different to objective class position
  18. Marx and History
    • History is a process of development of different forces of production
    • society developed diff ways of production which affects materials available
  19. historical periods of production examples:
    • primitive communism
    • feudalism (aristocratic land ownershio, forced labour by bonded serfs)
    • early capitalism
    • includes mercantilism (contracted trading relation/trade networks etc)
  20. capitalism as a mode of production
    • material forces of production create particular relations of production
    • impact relations of ownership (feudal vs private prop)
    • relations of emplyment (slave labour vs wage labour)
    • THUS relations of production affect society and political life of society
  21. Superstructure and Base - Marx view on state
    • base - made up of forces and relations of production
    • SS - political, ideological, social institutions
    • Marx - SS grows out of base
  22. controlling the base
    • base is controlled by capitalists
    • SO SS reflects interests of ruling class
    • BUT SS and the base are not naturally occuring
    • non-static
    • both creations of society
  23. Marx's argument on society/politics influence by economic conditions
    • argues SS developed subordinate to economic conditions
    • SS grows out of base 
    • so we have capitalist forms of state
    • affect ideology of society - what is permissable
    • health care
  24. Gellner (1988) critique on Marx:
    • argues SS/ideology develops from multiple forces acting simultaneously
    • in order for economic forces to develop the political and ideological must change
  25. Marxists rebuttal on Gellner (1988)
    • Marx argues " man must be in position to live to make history"
    • survival
    • Thus, in order to develop SS/ideological forces must first maintain economic conditions to survive
  26. Historical materialism def
    • theory of socioeconomic development
    • changes in material conditions are primary influence of now society and economy are organised
  27. historical materialism - Marx arguement
    • history is result of material processes
    • context we engage our free will in bound by material conditions
    • Thus, material structure of society affects our agenct
  28. Shimp criticism of historical materialism validity
    • some versions of HM predict socialism/communism would follow capitalism
    • but fall of soc/comm in soviet union
  29. rebuttal on Shimp historical materialism:
    • unfounded assertion
    • capitalism not close to being developed
    • Laibman - capitalism 3rd or 4th stage model of capitalist development
    • 20th century revolutionaries overzealous
    • Thus HM has not seen its true test
    • apparent failure strengthens validity
  30. The rise of socialism/communism
    • proletarait develop "class consciousness"
    • seize means of production
    • communist revolution
    • economic system that does not generate alienation
    • no private property
  31. Bailey at al. socialism eventual
    • Marx argues overthrow is inevitable 
    • due to internal nature of capitalism
    • BUT not spontaneous
    • determined revolutionaries
  32. feasibility of socialism and communism critique?
    • Howard and King 1994
    • HM perspective:
    • in order for soc/comm to follow capitalism
    • would have to use productive forces more efficiently than productive relations of capitalism 
    • difficult to argue against efficiency of capitalism
  33. Howard and King 1994 rebuttal
    • Marx addresses this shortcoming by asserting:
    • every mode of production has its own economy and economic foundation
    • advent of soc/comm could bring about different, non-neoclassical ways of measuring efficiency

    • does not refute HM
    • used to explain and predict that capitalism will be replaced
    • uncertain with what
  34. critiques of socialism (1)
    • suppression of individual rights
    • erode rights of citizens
    • any redistribution of property is a form of coersion
    • Friedman - absence of free market economy inevitably lead to authoritarean regime
    • BUT also under capitalism?
  35. critiques of socialism (2)
    Woff - reduced incentives
  36. criticism of Marxist theory
    • economically deterministic
    • overlooks other forms of non-economic conflict
    • eg radical feminists - patriarchal conflict
  37. Karl Popper
    • unscientific
    • ideas cannot be refuted
    • "faith" or dogma
    • replacement of capitalism is false as "historically inevitable"