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- those larger forces such as economy, social and political organization, and ideological systems… (& natural environments?)
- limits individuals choices (i.e. ‘free choice’ is an illusion)
- example: why people migrate in the first place and why a coup happens
- the human ability to act and exercise choice in their everyday lives
- example: migration is people taking up agency
- Guerrilla movements
- process of integrating the world through worldviews, products, ideas, and other cultural aspects
- expansion of primarily Western and Capitalist institutions and lifeways into non-Western cultures
- can be a good or bad thing
- An ideology that talks of globalization as a good thing and inevitable thing that human agency cant teach
- example: the market and globalization forces are beyond human agency; the market is self-regulating; the dismantling of the market is inevitable
- reducing state-sponsored services and programs
- it is up to the Private sector or NGO initiatives to fill the vacuum left by the state
- privitization of basic services and state companies (water, healthcare, oil, education)
- Individuals and local communities are made responsible for meeting their basic needs.
- it can be political, economic, or even religious ideas
- It is presented to poor and working people as progressive
- imposed by the world bank and IMF
- convincing people in lower classes that things are supposed to be this certain way
- process through which subordinates internalize their rulers’ values and accept (to varying
- degrees) the ‘naturalness’ of domination.
What is resistance
- people with their own agency have the power to refuse forces to conform to someone else’s wishes
- can be:
- formal: complete withdrawal of compliance; demonstrations; protests; violence
- Informal: subtle critiques; non compliance; in private spaces
Who is Manuel “Mel” Zelaya?
What are some events leading up to the 2009 military coup in Honduras?
- In the 80's there was a tradition of supporting the armed forces by the US
- any government can risk a coup if they go against the armed forces
- Mel Zelaya, elected president of Honduras in 2005
- came from elite land owning family and was associated with other wealthy right winged land owning elites
- he was ousted during a coup in 2009 and brought to costa rica
- some individuals believed he was leaning too far to the left when he forged an alliance with ALBA, raised the minimum wage, placed a moratorium on mining, and proposed for electing a president for another 4 years
- A US military coup installed government
- mel attempted to go back to Honduras clandestinely
- US denied having anything to do with the coup
What has happened since the coup?
- A deepening of neoliberal policies
- Disruption of pre-coup social policy achievements passed into legislation during previous governments
- State violence against groups who opposed this post-coup governance
Post Coup reforms to the education sector and teachers’ response to these neoliberal policies of governance
- teachers were one of the first groups to protest the coup
- radical changes were made in state practices which introduced educational programs highly unattainable for school teachers
- the state disciplined teachers as workers often criminalizing them and reducing their salaries and benefits
- teachers are seen as both intellectuals and community leaders and are the key leaders of this movement
- teachers protest on the streets
- contradicatory nature of the teachers working for the state, but protesting at the same time
interrupting neoliberalism in LA and be able to recognize an example of this practice in Goodale and Postero's article
- La Resistencia and Libre Party created in response to the coup
- different social movements initiated to refound the state by interrupting neoliberalism
- Mel Zelaya's spouse, Xiamora Zelaya, was elected as a presidential candidate
- Xiamora had the largest voluntary inauguration in its political history
- teachers protesting intermittently because of being underpaid, thus affecting their livelihood
- policies that are implemented to force the general population to pay for education, and if not then choose to work in the maquila factories.
- interrupting neoliberal policies such as soliciting a trade school to train high schoolers in refrigeration mechanics to create opportunities for them