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G view on state
- "soulless machine"
- individualsn cannot develop spiritually
- degenerates, passitivity, dependence
- self rule
- home rule
- political self determination of nation and of a person
- independent of gov control - foreign or national
- moral authority
- more than freedom from all restraints but SELF rule SELF restraint
- "poorna swaraj"
- complete independence by truthful and non-violent means
- state work in partnership with civic associations
- way of community and self improvement
- structures/systems/processes thay are alternative to alienation
- self suffiency
- regardless of race/colour/creed
- removal of untouchability
civil disobedience def
- active refusal to obey certain laws or commands of a gov or of an occupying intl power
- used in Gandhi's campaigns for independence from British colonial rule
non-violence - means and ends
- transformative effects of non violence
- the means affect the ends
- one cannot control ends, but can control means he is pursuing
- one cannot obtain peaceful means through violent ends
means and ends Creed of Non Violence
"swaraj by nonviolent means can therefore never mean an interval of chaos and anarchy"
Tolstoy and Gandhian non violence
- philosophy and stategy of social change
- Satyagraha - non violent action/truth force
- non violent action as an alternative to passive acceptance of oppression
- not passive
Criticisms on non violence
- Trotsky -
- non violence and pacificism are an attemt to impose morals of bourgeoisie upon pro
- Malcom X
- violence is necesssary for revolutionary change
- right to self defence fundamental
Rebuttal on critics of non violence
- objections based on belief that non-violence has no power
- Orwell - effective in countires with "a free press and right of assembly"
- Gandhi not a pacifist
Rebuttal: Non Violence "Satyagraha" IS powerful
- action driven through reason and fact
- agitates/draws attention/'problematising' situation
- old patterns of dominance challenged
- demonstrates serious conviction
Rebuttal: Non Violence "Satyagraha" IS powerful - spiritual reasons
- builds up "spiritual power" - protesters fighting for own experience of truth
- spiritual influence on oppressor
- prompts process of self reflection
- act of love - giving up vengeance, choosing to suffer
Non Violence "Satyagraha"
- suffering alone not enough for systematic change, has to be led by "truth force"
- a philosophical practise
- within non-violent reistance movement
- goes beyond passive resistence and is a VINDICTION of truth of oneself
Satyagraha is different from passive resistence
- passive resistence "weapon of the weak"
- Satyagraha "weapon of the strong, admits of no violence and INSISTS upon the truth"
Truth - crucial in politics
- "Truth is God and God is Truth"
- spiritual, non material - no one person can experience whole truth
- = dictates non violence as it prevents truth being expressed
- SO: RESPECT TRUTH through non violence
- "compassion" "not to injure! - do no harm
- Ends: non violence/truth
- Means: Ahimsa
- "Ahimsa is the means and Truth is the end"
- applies to all spheres of life - politics
- crucial for Swaraj
Critique of Gandhi philosophy - Rothemund
- Against individualism? Emphasis on "good for all", sacrifice, social harmony
- suggests "onslaught of individualism"
- Mallif - constant conflict between humanist (legal state, independence, individualism) and mystic (moral state, group civilisation, unity)
Critique of Gandhi philosophy - Rothemund critique
- BUT Western dichotomy of the humanism does not do justice with Indian philosophy
- in which individuals could co-exists with ideas of social order
- (gandhi - recognised necessity for coersive laws, basic order)
- G not against European individualism, but how EU civilisation hampers the advancement and spirituality of man
Critique of Gandhi philosophy - Mantema
- "Another Realism: The Politics of Gandhian Non-violence"
- G perceived to be a spiritual idealist/moralist
- bu Mantema argues his understanding of politics is fundamentally realist
- strategic and pragmatic
- attuned to unintended consequences f violence
- coersion - everyone becomes power seeker
- nature of escalation of conflict
- THUS seeked to constrain adverse consequences of poltics through SATYAGARHA (non violent action)
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