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What is Microbiology?
- It is the study of microorganisms.
- Organisms too small to be seen by the naked eye.
- They have a diameter of 1 mm or less.
- Archea and Bacteria are prokaryotes and they contain no nucleus.
- Eukaryotes include protists, fungi and animals.
- Viruses are non living so they are not put into any category. Viruses are said to be hijackers because they steal from their hosts.
- Viruses are wrapped in a protein coat.
- Enveloped viruses have lipid bilayers and have glyco proteins for binding.
- A naked virus has no coat.
Ecological Roles of Microorganisms
- Primary Producers
- Nutrient cycling
- Symbionts (live with other organisms)
Cycling of Microorganisms
- Base of food chains-produce oxygen
- Decompose waste-cycle nutrients
- Fix Nitrogen
- Cause disease
The body is about 10% bacteria
Economical Roles of Microorganisms
- Chemical synthesis
- Proteins (insulin)
- Research, medicine, bioremediation, baking and brewing are some examples
History of Microbiology
- Robert Hooke (1665) invented simple microscope. Observed cork and the "little boxes"
- Van Leuwenhoek (1673) Discovered early embryos of plants
- Francesco Redi (1970?) Observation meat left uncovered and maggots. First controlled experiment
- Spallanzani (1740) all cells come from cells. Broth experiment. Deprived of oxygen so no life can grow.
Biogenesis vs. Spontaneous Generation
- Belief that life arises from non life
- Taken as docturine until 1665.
Spontaneous generation put to rest
- By Louis Pasteur
- If air is allowed to enter the broth, it has to be clean air. Experiment with swan neck. This was the beginning of Microbiology.