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Mill def of social liberty
justifies freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control
"tyranny of the majority"
banning certain practices
democracy does not rule out injustice - oppression of the majority by the minority
Mill - representative democracy
powers limited in a representative democracy
neither anarchism nor absolutism
complete freedom - abuse and exploitation
utility principle def
actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness
utility - bentham
"greatest happiness principle"
produce greatest happiness among everyone
all forms happiness as equal
Mill critque on Bentham
argues for qualitative seperation of pleasures
higher - intellectual and moral
lower - physical
"better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
Benefits of liberty
diversity - people are so complex, cannot impose what is "good"
so we must pursue what is good in our own way through choice
human nature - excercise of freedom and choice
vital to development
makes us human
"experiments of living things"
liberty vital as condition of eperimentation
secure greatest possible human happiness
but too optimistic? repeated mistakes?
Harm principle - def quote
the only purpose for which power can be rightfully excersised over an a citizen in a civillied community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others
def of harm
pain or absense of pleasure
damage to other people's interests
- personal safety/security
Harm principle critique - self regarding behaviour
but only applies to self regarding behaviour (as to not damage other peoples interests)
not applied to other regarding
difficult to distinguish
very subjective - limited range of application
other harm principle critque
offence principle? eg indecency
society holds moral principles, breaking those offends society as a whole
violations of personal liberty become trivial
danger of harm through violent behaviour outweighs individuals right to drink
limits individuals autonomy for their own good
mills opposes state paternalism
development of independent character
individuals understadn their interests better than gov
gov liable to abuse - self interest
agent doesn't possess rational thought process
justified if individual unaware action is dangerous
thus supported by HP - but only in other regarding
Dworkin - paternalism
pure paternalism - restrict the actions of people who may be harmed by their own behaviour
restrictions identical for all classes of people
freedom oppressed for all in question
eg suicide illegal
protects welfare from one class but restricts freedom of another
eg banning of cigarettes harms tobacco manufacturers
Foreign Intervention - "civillised nations"
opposes intervention for developed nations
liberation must be achieved through domestic struggle
authentic self determination
: decide for themselves if they want democracy or tyrannical
freedom only achieved through "arduous struggle"
in order for freedom to be maintained - appreciate liberty
but always the case? WW2 liberal democracies emerged from oppressive regimes through foreign intervention
counter-intervention - brief description
when country being invaded by another
3rd country decides whether or not to support opposing force
counter intervention quote
"though it be a mistake to give freedom to a people who do not value the boon
it cannot be but right to insist that if they do value it
they shall not be hindered from the pursuit of foreign coercion"
but what if it never amounts of conflict? domestic case where gov is too powerful and citizens cannot overthrow yet value freedom
supportive - surprising
only believes of liberty of citizen in "civillised community"
fulfill improvement of "barbarians" in cultures that surpress individuality
change culture to support conditions of liberal freedom
self extinguishing depsot
aim of colonialism is to bring about its end
by teaching others to be free
critique on milll colonialism
19th c prejudices
can be argued there are cultural pre-conditions that are required for lib democracy to flourish
right levels of trust/education/traditions
can these be imposed?