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Mill def of social liberty
justifies freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control
- protection from "tyranny of the majority"
- banning certain practices
- democracy does not rule out injustice - oppression of the majority by the minority
Mill - representative democracy
- powers limited in a representative democracy
- how much?
- neither anarchism nor absolutism
- complete freedom - abuse and exploitation
utility principle def
actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness
utility - bentham
- "greatest happiness principle"
- produce greatest happiness among everyone
- all forms happiness as equal
- equalifies pleasure
Mill critque on Bentham
- argues for qualitative seperation of pleasures
- higher - intellectual and moral
- lower - physical
- "better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
Benefits of liberty
- diversity - people are so complex, cannot impose what is "good"
- so we must pursue what is good in our own way through choice
- human nature - excercise of freedom and choice
- vital to development
- makes us human
- "experiments of living things"
- liberty vital as condition of eperimentation
- secure greatest possible human happiness
but too optimistic? repeated mistakes?
Harm principle - def quote
the only purpose for which power can be rightfully excersised over an a citizen in a civillied community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others
def of harm
- pain or absense of pleasure
- damage to other people's interests
- - personal safety/security
Harm principle critique - self regarding behaviour
- but only applies to self regarding behaviour (as to not damage other peoples interests)
- not applied to other regarding
- difficult to distinguish
- very subjective - limited range of application
other harm principle critque
- offence principle? eg indecency
- society holds moral principles, breaking those offends society as a whole
- over restrictive
- violations of personal liberty become trivial
- danger of harm through violent behaviour outweighs individuals right to drink
limits individuals autonomy for their own good
mills opposes state paternalism
- disrupts liberty
- development of independent character
- individuals understadn their interests better than gov
- gov liable to abuse - self interest
- gov misinformed
- agent doesn't possess rational thought process
- "backwards" adults
- justified if individual unaware action is dangerous
- thus supported by HP - but only in other regarding
Dworkin - paternalism
- pure paternalism - restrict the actions of people who may be harmed by their own behaviour
- restrictions identical for all classes of people
- freedom oppressed for all in question
- eg suicide illegal
- impure paternalism
- protects welfare from one class but restricts freedom of another
- eg banning of cigarettes harms tobacco manufacturers
Foreign Intervention - "civillised nations"
- opposes intervention for developed nations
- liberation must be achieved through domestic struggle
- authentic self determination: decide for themselves if they want democracy or tyrannical
- freedom only achieved through "arduous struggle"
- empirical claim
- in order for freedom to be maintained - appreciate liberty
- but always the case? WW2 liberal democracies emerged from oppressive regimes through foreign intervention
counter-intervention - brief description
- Mills supports
- when country being invaded by another
- 3rd country decides whether or not to support opposing force
counter intervention quote
- "though it be a mistake to give freedom to a people who do not value the boon
- it cannot be but right to insist that if they do value it
- they shall not be hindered from the pursuit of foreign coercion"
but what if it never amounts of conflict? domestic case where gov is too powerful and citizens cannot overthrow yet value freedom
- supportive - surprising
- only believes of liberty of citizen in "civillised community"
- fulfill improvement of "barbarians" in cultures that surpress individuality
- change culture to support conditions of liberal freedom
colonialism - "enlightened despotism"
- self extinguishing depsot
- aim of colonialism is to bring about its end
- by teaching others to be free
critique on milll colonialism
- 19th c prejudices
- can be argued there are cultural pre-conditions that are required for lib democracy to flourish
- right levels of trust/education/traditions
- can these be imposed?
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