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- structure of government associated with an officially recognized and “sovereign” territory
- Comprised of the executive, its bureaucracy and related institutions.
- Involved in taxation, allocation of rights,
- punishment, social services, etc.
- Active at municipal, regional and national levels.
- state is not the same as the government.
- Governments change but the state does not
- state is multifaceted by contradictory
how do some subordinates see the state as a resource?
they see the state as the answer to all governing polices
what is policies of governance?
- refers to legislation that affects the population. example: welfare program; taxation program; minimum wage; arresting suspected gang members, etc
- installing a new government leads to changes in state services
- change in legislation and laws affect the population because of the governments in place
what is state practices?
- broader activities of the state over time (generally over the span of several different governments)
- Example: Having an Enclave Economy; Developing the Armed Forces budget around US funding and influence; using the Armed Forces against your own population (as opposed to just defending the borders, etc).
- significant changes in what the state does regardless of the government in power
charactersitics of new social movements and examples in LA
- organized primarily at the residential and community level (as opposed to the workplace)
- not just about a working-class goal (like trade unions in a factory), but around broader social changes like gender equality, ecological problems, etc.
- organizing beyond a particular class
- example: water wars
significance of Evo Morales government in Bolivia
- example: government didnt ask the people if they wanted to privatize the water
- Bechtel a foreign company owned the ground and rain water
- they required people to get a license to collect rain water. people actively collected to protest this and won.
- indigenous rights activists
- leader of Aymara
- opposed US attack on coca growers
- endorsed the water wars
- when he got elected he said he was going to nationalize gas in order for it to benefit bolivia
- technically he just increased the tax on it
- to nationalize means the state takes over the company
- he reversed what happened with neoliberal companies by taking back prvatized companies and nationalizing them
- rejected US free trade agreement
- evo's policies of governance were in favor of the poor, but will it be the same for the state after he leaves
Esdras experience following 2009 coup, and how school teachers use the state as a resource
- teachers in honduras like the state, but just want changes in the way it is governed
- the state is not always so bad, but actually a good resource
- Esdras is a school director that decided to travel to nicaragua to support the president
- he did so secretively
- he had a responsibility to support mel zelaya and his policies to help the poor
- teachers view themselves as responsible to take action for the broader society
- school teachers represent state authorities enforcing practices necessary for their students such as (immunizations)
- school teachers are local intellectuals and represent state authority carrying out education
- teachers recognize they are part of the state responsible for creating citizens
- teachers protest regardless of the government in place, they are doing it in the name of the state
- teachers have a vested interest in the state because they see the possibilities of the way things could be
- they want the state to prioritize education and opportunities for youth
- Mercedes and esdres - looked for money for school building development. they looked to elites in government positions for help, but were denied. they turned to the sugar company for a donation. they gave them less than they wanted, but still a substantial amount. they wanted mercedes to sign a form showing their donations so that they could get a tax break
- instead the sugar company stated that they gave more in donations than they did
- mercedes refused to sign, but the company threatened to take back their money so she signed.
- during the grand opening of the school a press release was to happen and elites that refused to donate wanted to come, but mercedes solicited the help of police officers in order to keep politicians out.
- this is how state institutions are utized by school teachers.