pharm final

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athors766ns
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302997
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pharm final
Updated:
2015-05-19 22:15:18
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pharm
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final pharm
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  1. Beta agonist
    • bronchodilator
    • relief of bronchospasm, treats/prevention of attacks
  2. epinephrine
    • beta agonist
    • stimulate alpha beta1 and beta 2 (nonselective)
    • AE: insomnia, restlessness, anorexia, headache, tremor, stimulate Heart
  3. metaproterenol
    • nonselective beta agonist
    • stim b1 and b2
    • AE: stim heart, tremor, HA, hypotension, chest pain
  4. Abuterol
    • Selective beta agonist
    • stim beta2 only
    • AE: tremor, HA, hypo/hypertension
  5. Anticholinergic
    • maintenance
    • prevents ACH receptors to cause bronchoconstriction
  6. Atrovent and Spiriva
    • prevents constriction
    • AE: dry mouth, nasal congestion, palpitations, gi distress, HA, cough, anxiety
  7. Xanthine derivative
    bronchodilator
  8. Theophylline, aminophyilline, dyphillne
    • (-lline) dilates the brochi
    • AE: stim heart, NV, gerd, tachycardia, palpitations, many interactions
  9. Leukotriene receptor antagonists
    • maintenance. for chronic asthma
    • Prevents leukotrienes to cause constriction, mucus secretions, and inflammation.
    • Improvement in one week
  10. Zileuton
    • leukotriene
    • AE: HA, N, dizziness, insomnia, liver dysfunction
  11. zalfirlukast and  montelukast
    • (z, z, Kast)
    • HA, N/D liver dysfunction
    • mono:less A/E
  12. corticosteroids
    • maintenance. chronic. take for several weeks
    • rinse mouth to avoid thrush
  13. -one drugs
    • corticosteroids
    • AE: pharyngeal irritation, cough, dry mouth, thrush
    • no fungal infection, aids, tb
  14. Brochodilator or steroid first
    Bronchodilator BEFORE the steroid
  15. centrally acting alpha 2 agonist
    adrenergic: brain- less norepinephrine- less renin- decrease BP
  16. Clondine and methyldopa
    • ok in prego
    • adrenergic CAA2A
    • opiod withdrawl
    • AE dry mouth sedation HA bad sleep palpitations, N rash and hypotension
  17. Peripherally acting alpha 1 blocker
    • adrenergic
    • dilate arteries and veins - decrease SVR- decrease BP
  18. -osin drugs
    adrenergic PAA1B
  19. nebivolol
    beta 1 (cardio selective) blocker
  20. propranolol and atenolol
    • non selective beta1 and beta2
    • NO with wheezing
  21. carvedilol and lobetalol
    • peripherally acting dual a1 and beta blocker
    • decrease HR and vasodilation
    • NO with wheezing
  22. Angiotensin II receptor blocker
    • block angiotensin II- block vasoconstriction
    • doesn't cause cough
    • less likely to cause hyperkalemia
    • used for those who cant tolerate ACE inhibitors
  23. -sartan drugs
    • AIIRB
    • AE: upper respiratory tract infection, HA, dizzy, bad sleep, diarrhea, heartburn
    • NO pregnancy
  24. ACE inhibitors
    • block angiotensin converting enzyme - decrease SVR- vasodilation- decrease BP
    • drug of choice for bp hf and DM
    • AE: fatigue, dizzy HA DRY COUGH angioedema
    • NO PREGO MONITOR K
  25. captopril
    • short half life. take many times a day
    • safe for liver dysfunction. not a prodrug.
  26. lisinopril
    • long half life. once a day
    • safe for liver. not a prodrug. safe on kidneys (DM)
  27. Calcium channel blockers
    • smooth muscle contraction, decrease SVR
    • used for angina, HA, rayauds disease
  28. Diltiazem and verapmil
    • calcium channel blocker
    • dysrthmias N V rash, flushing, edema
  29. amlodipine
    most common CCB
  30. Diuretics
    decrease fluid, decrease preload, decrease CO, decrease resistance, decreased BP
  31. Hydrochlorothiazide
    first line antihypertensive medication
  32. Vasodilator
    direct dilation, decrease SVR, decreased BP
  33. Diazoxide, hydralazine
    • vasodilator
    • AE: dizzy, HA, tachycardia, NVD, edema nasal congestion
  34. nitropress
    • hypertensive emergencies only
    • vasodilator
    • AE: decrease HR and cyanide toxicity
  35. Positive inotropic
    increase heart contraction
  36. positive chronotropic
    increase HR
  37. positive dromotropic
    accelerate cardiac conduction
  38. ACE inhibitors HF
    inhibits aldosterone secretion and prevents resorption of NA and H2O, diuresis, decrease preload
  39. lisinopril, enalapril, captopril
    • ace inhibitors
    • AE: hyperkalemia, dry cough, No preggo
  40. angiotensin II receptor blocker HF
    • vasodilator, decrease SVR
    • no cough
  41. B type natriuretic peptide
    vasodilator, increase CO, suppress renin-angiotensin system, and diuresis. HF
  42. nesiritide
    • b type natriuretic peptide
    • used in severe life threatening HF
    • AE: hypotension, dysrhythmia, HA, abdominal pain
  43. phosphodiesterase inhibitor
    positive inotropic drug (increase heart contraction and vasodilator for HF
  44. inamrinone, milrinone
    • phosphodiesterase inhibitor
    • AE: thrombocytopenia, dysrthmias (ventricular), hypotension, angina, hypokalemia, tremor
  45. cardiac glycoside
    • systolic HF and AFib/Flutter
    • +inotropic (increase heart contraction)
    • -chronotropic (decrease HR)
    • -dromotropic (decrease conduction)
    • increase SV, diuresis
  46. Digoxin
    • cardiac glycoside
    • 0.5-2 therapeutic range
    • Low K levels increase toxicity
    • AE: dysrhythmias, tachy/brady HR, HA, fatigue, confusion, colored/halo/flickering vision, NVD
  47. digoxin toxicity
    • hyperkalemia (above 5)
    • cardia dysrhythmias
    • digoxin levels over 10
    • HA, dizzy, confusion, yellow vision/halos
  48. digoxin immune fab
    • antidote
    • wait to give digoxin until after labs come back (afternoon)
  49. Hold meds if HR
    under 60 or above 100
  50. Nitrates
    vasodilation. used for prevention and treatment of angina
  51. Nitroglycerine
    • nitrate, take patch off at nighttime so not to build a tolerance.
    • AE: Headache, tachcard, hypotension, dizzy
    • Sit down, take one, call 911, 5min take one, 5min take one
  52. Beta blocker angina
    decrease HR, decrease contractility, cardio protective
  53. metoprolol
    • beta blocker
    • long term prevention of angina not immediate relief.
    • AE: bradycard, hypotension, wheezing, impotence, dyspnea, unusual dreams
  54. calcium channel blocker angina
    vasodilation, decrease SVR, decrease workload, decrease myocardial 02 demand.
  55. report a wt gain of
    2 lbs in a day and 5 lbs in a week
  56. active TB tx
    • intensive/initial phase (4 drug therapy)
    • 2hrez
  57. 4 first line TB drugs
    • Isoniazid (INH)
    • rifampin (RIF)
    • pyrazinamide (PZA)
    • ethambutol (EMB)/ streptomycin
  58. continual TB phase
    • 2 drug therapy
    • INH and RIF
  59. Latent TB TX
    • INH
    • or RIF in INH resistant
  60. effectiveness of TB tx depends on
    • type of infection
    • adequate dosing
    • ok duration tx
    • adhearence to tx
    • selection of an effective drug combo
  61. Isoniazid
    • INH
    • first line tx, used with active/latent TB infections
    • inhibits cell wall synthesis.
    • AE: elevate ALT, hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy and toxyicity (admin VITb)
  62. Rifampin
    • RIF
    • first line tx, active TB, latent with INH
    • inhibit RNA synthesis
    • SE: NVD, abdominal pain, flu like sx, rash, ORANGE body fluids, hepatitis
    • Interferes with BCP and warfarin
  63. rifapentine
    long acting (RIF) in the continual phase
  64. ethambutal
    • first line tx, active TB, inhibits protein synthesis, inhibits RNA
    • SE: optic beuritis, decrease visual acuity, decrease red green discrimination, NV, anorexia, hepatitis
  65. Rifabutin
    • first line tx, used if pt is unable to tolerate RIF. Protien cell wall inhibitor
    • SE: brown orange body fluids, neutropenia in AIDS pts, NVD, hepatitis
  66. Rifater and Rifamate
    • combo drugs
    • RIF and INH
    • RIF, INH, PZA
  67. 2nd line drugs (ac2eklop)
    • amikacin
    • capreomycin
    • cycloserine
    • ethionamide
    • kanamycin
    • levofloxacin
    • ofloxacin
    • PAS
  68. airborn isolation until
    3 neg sputum tests 24hr apart
  69. PPD
    • purified protein derivative
    • positive result if induration (not red) - mantoux reaction
  70. bacilli calmette Guerin
    BCG- vaccine used outside the US

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