small groups.txt

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small groups.txt
2009-10-15 15:15:22
psychology small groups

Group Conflict
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  1. Groups Structure
    • -patterns in group behavior
    • -ex: status systems (who has more influence), norms, roles, networks (friendship, communication, etc.)
    • -structure is preventative-cuts down on some of the confusion over roles, leadership, etc.
  2. Group Dynamics
    • -tactics and influence
    • -ex: power, bargaining, coalition formation, conformity/deviance
    • -dynamics is curative-helps the group solve conflicts once they occur
  3. Conformity
    majority try to make people do things their way
  4. Deviance
    minority tries to make people do things their way
  5. Who needs group dynamics?
    The structure of a group may be too weak to be effective, or it may become maladaptive as conditions change.
  6. Reasons why a groups may become maladaptive
    • -change in Group Composition ex: flood of new members; leaders may not know how to communicate to new members
    • -change in Group Goals/Tasks ex: tasks may become too complex
    • -change in Environment ex: old structure of a small restaurant may have to change if a huge chain opens nearby
  7. Characteristic of Group Structure
    Every group has some structure, but structural features vary across groups.
  8. Characteristic of Group Structure
    Groups structure develops quickly, as if people are anxious about interacting freely.
  9. Characteristic of Group Structure
    Once established, group structure can be slow to change.
  10. Characteristic of Group Structure
    People often seem to be unaware of group structure and its effects.
  11. Status: Power in Repose
    • -groups members vary in their ability to influence on another
    • -status differences can be measured by surveys or through behavioral observations
  12. Behavioral Observations
    • -preferable
    • -more accurate than surveys b/c people may lie or may not know/think about status
  13. Problem with Bales theory
    Ascribed Status-why is status ascribed rather than earned in so many groups? Strodtbeck and his colleagues have found (for years) that on juries, males and people with better SES tend to have higher status
  14. Problem with Bales
    Quick Status-status systems can develop very quickly. Fisek and Ofshe (1970) asked small groups to solve human relations problems. Participation rates which were positively correlated with status stabilized almost immediately in some groups.
  15. Reasons why status systems change slowly
    • -affective factors
    • -cognitive factors
    • -behavioral factors
  16. Affective Factors
    higher status members are more committed to the group (and happier)
  17. Cognitive Factors
    all members view themselves and others in ways to justify their status (people buy into the system, whether happy (high status) or not (low status))
  18. Behavioral Factors
    higher members get more opportunities to exert influence and are more successful in their influence attempts (also, ideas from a low status member are judged more harshly than (even the same) ideas from higher status members