Test Questions

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Test Questions
2015-05-20 15:42:02
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  1. value of e
  2. For an extraction of a phenol with a ring, what must be done?
    Use a strong base to separate them out of the mixtre. Because phenols are weaker, it is not good to use a weak base.
  3. Speed of photons in medium
    all photons travel at the same speed in the same medium

    - photons have longer wavelngths and lower energy
  4. Pouiseuille flow
  5. High temperatures disrupt what in the protein?
    secondary and tertiary bonds
  6. relationship between pKa and Ka.
    the more negative the pKa, the larger the Ka, the more dissociation, the more bond breaking--> dH> 0
  7. Micelles
    have a hydrophobic core that assists in absorption of fat
  8. BaSO4 is __
  9. Halogens are __
  10. NO3- is __
    always soluble
  11. Proline has __.
    hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole, dispersion, and dipole dipole
  12. At higher altitudes, the air becomes __
    less dense
  13. Under water, how do our eyes react?
    our eyes can't bend incoming light because the water and the eye's media are too similar, resulting in an angle that is not so different
  14. KE=?
    1/2mv^2=3/2KbT, where Kb is Boltzmann constant
  15. Isomers
    constitutional  vs. stereoisomer

    stereoisomer-- configurational and conformational
  16. Explain pH and pI
    At pH above the isoelectric point, molecules migrate toward the anode, while at pH lower than isoelectric point, they migrate toward the cathode

    • pH > pI: migrate to anode because protein carries a net negative charge
    • pH < pI: migrate to cathode because the protein carries a net positive charge
  17. What is the isoelectric point?
    pH at which the amino acid does not migrate in an electric field.
  18. Myosin
    motor protein/ ATPase
  19. Smooth muscle is not
    organized into sarcomeres
  20. Neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, does what?
    binds to receptor at neuromuscular junction
  21. T tubules do what?
    transmit current
  22. Human mitochondrial DNA charateristics...
    circlar and does not have telomeres; they make their own proteins
  23. Cytochrome p450
    is found in liver tissue and issued in oxidative detox of meds
  24. Dermatomes
    long narrow, one sided regions of skin innervated by a single nerve
  25. Healthy tissue--> scar tissue..what are the steps?
    • Fluid accumulation between layers of epidermis
    • Tissue dehydration
    • epithelial growth
    • collagen infiltration
  26. The ETC can be halted by what?
    a proton gradient across the inner mitochondria
  27. Haversian canals..
    contain capillaries and nerves
  28. Blastophores??
    give rise to the anus in the mouth
  29. World systems theory
    • Core countries: Most economically diversified, wealthy, and powerful
    • Semi-periphery countries: midway between the core and periphery; apply protectionist policies most aggressively; countries moving towards industrialization and more diversified economies
    • Periphery countries: least economically diversified, relatively weak governments, etc.
  30. Long term memory
    recall after a week
  31. Working memory
    memory the person is using at the moment
  32. Socialization
  33. Cognitive appraisal
    the person emotionally reacts after evaluating a given situation
  34. Language is located where?
    in the left hemisphere
  35. Memory is __
    localized bilaterally
  36. Gestalt principles
    similarity: objects lok similar to one another; people often perceive them as a group or pattern

    continuation: occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object

    closure: occurs when an object is incomplete r a space is not completely enclosed; people can fill in the missing information

    proximity: when objects are placed close toegether, they may be perceived as a group
  37. Inclusive fitness
    determined not only by the number of offspring an organism has, but its ability to protect/ raise its offspring to the point where they become productive members of the organism's social structure
  38. Biopsychosocial model
    biological, psychological, and social factors all matter
  39. Behaviorist/ trait perspective
    define personality
  40. What are the three theories of personality?
    behaviorist: personality is a behavior that has been reinforced over time

    social cognitive: focuses on how we interact with that environment

    biological: result of genetic expression
  41. Spreading activation
    phenomenon by which one node within a semantic network becoming active subconsciousley activates semantically linked nodes

    The stronger the connection between the ideas, the more quickly the person is able to recall relevant information. A
  42. Social constructionism
    how groups come together to ascribe meaning/ value to objects
  43. Functionalists
    describe function as a beneficial consequence
  44. Parkinson's is characterized by __
    cell death in the substantia nigra

    located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement
  45. Glycerol has more __ and __ than phosphatidic acid.
    hydrogen bonds and intermolecular forces
  46. myelin does what?
    insulates; therefore, it is a bad conductor
  47. Pouiselle's Law
    pressure difference is proportional to flow

    flow has an exponential relationship with radius

    inverse relationship between viscosity and flow
  48. Enzymes __
    lower the activation energyy
  49. NAD
    composed of two nucleotides joined by their phosphate group
  50. Vitamin D
    cholesterol derived product made when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with UV light
  51. Pregnenolone is __
    formed from cholesterol
  52. Venturi effect
    velocity increases to maintain continuity if A decreases

    hydrostatic pressure decreases
  53. Units of Tesla
  54. thermal isolation
    all energy released as heat must stay in a bomb calorimeter
  55. The golgi is responsible for __
    protein maturation
  56. Cortisol
    carbohydrate metabolism
  57. Growth hormone __
    increases protein synthesis and generalized cell function
  58. proximal tubule
    • primary site for adjustment of caloric substances and toxins
    • ex: glucose, amino acids, an dproteins
  59. distal tubule and collecting duct
    responsible for concentrating urine
  60. vasa recta
    capillary bed in the kidneys
  61. thin descending loop
    permeable to water which diffuses out of the increasingly osmolar inner medulla
  62. thin asceding limb
    permeable to salts only; passive
  63. thick asceding limb
    active transport of salts
  64. NADPH
    involved in the pentose phosphate pathway which regenerates NADP+
  65. angiopoietin
    works with VEGF to make blood vessels
  66. blood is derived from __
    the mesoderm, as are the smooth muscle and pericytes
  67. genetic drift
    eliminates minor gene variants
  68. Aspartate transaminase
    catalyzes the transfer of an amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and oxaloacetate
  69. which amino acids does alpha-ketoglutarate make?
    • glutamate
    • glutamine
    • proline
    • arginine
  70. which amino acids does oxaloacetate make?
    • aspartate
    • asparagine
    • methionine
    • threonine
    • isoleucine
    • lysine
  71. Nitric oxide
    • produced by endothelial cells to produce vasodilation
    •  The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus resulting in vasodilation and increasing blood flow. Nitric oxide is highly reactive (having a lifetime of a few seconds), yet diffuses freely across membranes. These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient paracrine (between adjacent cells) and autocrine (within a single cell) signaling molecule.
  72. Stabilizing selection
    maintain a phenotype
  73. Muscle and heart are derived from __
  74. belief perseverance
    continuation of a belief despite evidence to the contrary
  75. nativism
  76. chemical or radiation exposure is most likely to affect the baby when?
    4-9 weeks during organogenesis
  77. lateral hypothalamus
    regulates hunger
  78. bilateral lesions of the amygdala=
  79. anterior hypothalamus
  80. ventromedial hypothalamus
    regulates satiety
  81. sin0
  82. sin30
  83. sin45
  84. sin60
  85. sin90
  86. cos0
  87. cos30
  88. cos45
  89. cos60
  90. cos90
  91. Capacitance equation
  92. NO2- reacts with water to form __
    OH- ions
  93. Polar molecules have __
    high dipole moments
  94. alpha and beta on sugars correspond to __
    anomeric carbons
  95. When glycerol reacts with 3 different fatty acids, only __
    carbon 2 in the resulting triacylglycerol is attached to four different groups
  96. A fatty acid has the general formula __

    The corresponding fatty acid salt will have the general formula __

  97. If two compounds provide the same ion, the molar concentration will be equal to the __
    average of the two molar concentrations
  98. Why is N2 so unreactive?
    the triple bond
  99. H2O is usually omitted from the equilibrium constant expression because __
    it usually remains constant
  100. Energy required to remove an electron from an atom is __
    the ionization potential
  101. The volume of a gas depends only on __
    the number of moles of the gas pressent and not on the identity of the gas
  102. The ionization constant=
    the dissociation constant
  103. The larger the dissociation constant, the ___
    stronger the acid
  104. The smaller the pKa, the __
    stronger the acid
  105. AgF is __
  106. Trend of Zeff?
    increases from left to right since the number of protons in the nucleus incresaes
  107. Gas dissolving in a liquid is an __
    exothermic process which means that it will be more soluble at lower temperature
  108. 1)      A galvanic cell has a __reaction of __; reduction in a galvanic cell always occurs at the __and oxidation always at the __
    • spontaneous 
    • dG=-nFE
    • cathode 
    • anode
  109. 1)      Strecker synthesis: __
    two-step process to form amino acids
  110. 1)      What happens to a normal force the more vertical the plane becomes?
    the smaller the frictional force becomes since it depends on the normal
  111. Power=
  112. 1)      When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction (n2>n1), it __
    bends toward the normal
  113. Power refers to the ability to __
    influence people through real or perceived rewards and punishments
  114. SES is an indicator of __
    wealth or position
  115. Ascribed statu:
    refers to a position in a society based on characteristics beyond the individual's direct control
  116. Yerkes-Dodson law of social facilitation
    states tha tsimpler tasks are performed better with higher amounts of arousal; not seen with complex tasks since it may cause distraction
  117. Conflict theory
    emphasizes the importance of power and inequality within society
  118. Hill's criteria:
    • temporality
    • strength
    • dose-response
    • consistency
    • plausibility
    • consideration of alternate explanations
    • experiment
    • specificity
    • coherence
  119. Tryptophan
    amino acid precursor of serotonin
  120. reticular activating system
  121. For a fractionating column, how can you improve separation?
    lengthen the tube
  122. Explain inflation of the lungs.
    it is accomplished by negative pressure. 

    Because the lung stays in contact with the thoracic wall as it enlarges due to contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, a pressure that is lower than atm is generated within the alveolar sacs
  123. Relationship between resistivity and temperature
  124. Squalene
    used in synthesis of plant and animal sterols, such as cholesterol, steroid, hormones, etc.
  125. A good buffer?
    has a pKa within 1 pH unit of hte desired experimental condition
  126. Why won't sucrose be oxidized by Ag+ in the tollens test?
    because it does not have a hemiacetal funcitonal group and will not undergo mutarotation
  127. Archimedes principle: __
    the ratio of the density of an object to the density fo the fluid it is submersed in is equal to the ratio of the weight of the object in air to the difference of submersed weight and weight in air
  128. value of h in E=hf
    h= 6.626 x 10^-34
  129. Only __ are used to form proteins in eukaryotes during ribosomal protein synthesis.
  130. Fewer pigments cause __
    fewer signals of the weakly perceived color to be sent to the brain
  131. If red pigment is absent, __
    green cones are stronly stimulated, hence red appears more green than normal
  132. Fatty acids contain
    a carboxylic acid head group and a hydrocarbon tail
  133. Depth of processing
    refers to the type of attention applied to words during encoding
  134. Interference refers to __
    irrelevant information interfering with recall
  135. Proactive interference involves the __
    interference of information from long term memory with new information
  136. Confirmation bias is __
    the tendency to favor information that confirms existing beliefs. It can involve biases in the search for evidence or in the interpretation of evidence. It has also been found to be stronger for emotionally charged topics.
  137. Conflict theory perspective emphasizes__
    social relations of capital, power, and status as the driving forces in society
  138. Norms and rituals correspond to __
    symbolic interactionism than to the structural focus of conflict theory
  139. Mead and his theory of Identity
    • -          Me: part of the self that is formed in interaction with others and with the general social environment
    • -          I: spontaneous and autonomous part of the self 
  140. variable ratio
    giving rewards at variable periods
  141. Linguistic abilities are __
    lateralized on the left hemisphere
  142. Fovea__
    is the a small central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye; it is responsible for sharp central vision
  143.  Controlling for variables: __
    when researchers account for various factors that could serve as confounds for the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
  144. The periphery of the retina contains __
    a higher density of light sensitive rods, which results in a clearer image in the dark