For an extraction of a phenol with a ring, what must be done?
Use a strong base to separate them out of the mixtre. Because phenols are weaker, it is not good to use a weak base.
Speed of photons in medium
all photons travel at the same speed in the same medium
- photons have longer wavelngths and lower energy
High temperatures disrupt what in the protein?
secondary and tertiary bonds
relationship between pKa and Ka.
the more negative the pKa, the larger the Ka, the more dissociation, the more bond breaking--> dH> 0
have a hydrophobic core that assists in absorption of fat
BaSO4 is __
Halogens are __
NO3- is __
Proline has __.
hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole, dispersion, and dipole dipole
At higher altitudes, the air becomes __
Under water, how do our eyes react?
our eyes can't bend incoming light because the water and the eye's media are too similar, resulting in an angle that is not so different
1/2mv^2=3/2KbT, where Kb is Boltzmann constant
constitutional vs. stereoisomer
stereoisomer-- configurational and conformational
Explain pH and pI
At pH above the isoelectric point, molecules migrate toward the anode, while at pH lower than isoelectric point, they migrate toward the cathode
pH > pI: migrate to anode because protein carries a net negative charge
pH < pI: migrate to cathode because the protein carries a net positive charge
What is the isoelectric point?
pH at which the amino acid does not migrate in an electric field.
motor protein/ ATPase
Smooth muscle is not
organized into sarcomeres
Neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, does what?
binds to receptor at neuromuscular junction
T tubules do what?
Human mitochondrial DNA charateristics...
circlar and does not have telomeres; they make their own proteins
is found in liver tissue and issued in oxidative detox of meds
long narrow, one sided regions of skin innervated by a single nerve
Healthy tissue--> scar tissue..what are the steps?
Fluid accumulation between layers of epidermis
The ETC can be halted by what?
a proton gradient across the inner mitochondria
contain capillaries and nerves
give rise to the anus in the mouth
World systems theory
Core countries: Most economically diversified, wealthy, and powerful
Semi-periphery countries: midway between the core and periphery; apply protectionist policies most aggressively; countries moving towards industrialization and more diversified economies
Periphery countries: least economically diversified, relatively weak governments, etc.
Long term memory
recall after a week
memory the person is using at the moment
the person emotionally reacts after evaluating a given situation
Language is located where?
in the left hemisphere
Memory is __
similarity: objects lok similar to one another; people often perceive them as a group or pattern
continuation: occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object
closure: occurs when an object is incomplete r a space is not completely enclosed; people can fill in the missing information
proximity: when objects are placed close toegether, they may be perceived as a group
determined not only by the number of offspring an organism has, but its ability to protect/ raise its offspring to the point where they become productive members of the organism's social structure
biological, psychological, and social factors all matter
Behaviorist/ trait perspective
What are the three theories of personality?
behaviorist: personality is a behavior that has been reinforced over time
social cognitive: focuses on how we interact with that environment
biological: result of genetic expression
phenomenon by which one node within a semantic network becoming active subconsciousley activates semantically linked nodes
The stronger the connection between the ideas, the more quickly the person is able to recall relevant information. A
how groups come together to ascribe meaning/ value to objects
describe function as a beneficial consequence
Parkinson's is characterized by __
cell death in the substantia nigra
located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement
Glycerol has more __ and __ than phosphatidic acid.
hydrogen bonds and intermolecular forces
myelin does what?
insulates; therefore, it is a bad conductor
pressure difference is proportional to flow
flow has an exponential relationship with radius
inverse relationship between viscosity and flow
lower the activation energyy
composed of two nucleotides joined by their phosphate group
cholesterol derived product made when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with UV light
Pregnenolone is __
formed from cholesterol
velocity increases to maintain continuity if A decreases
hydrostatic pressure decreases
Units of Tesla
all energy released as heat must stay in a bomb calorimeter
The golgi is responsible for __
Growth hormone __
increases protein synthesis and generalized cell function
primary site for adjustment of caloric substances and toxins
ex: glucose, amino acids, an dproteins
distal tubule and collecting duct
responsible for concentrating urine
capillary bed in the kidneys
thin descending loop
permeable to water which diffuses out of the increasingly osmolar inner medulla
thin asceding limb
permeable to salts only; passive
thick asceding limb
active transport of salts
involved in the pentose phosphate pathway which regenerates NADP+
works with VEGF to make blood vessels
blood is derived from __
the mesoderm, as are the smooth muscle and pericytes
eliminates minor gene variants
catalyzes the transfer of an amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and oxaloacetate
which amino acids does alpha-ketoglutarate make?
which amino acids does oxaloacetate make?
produced by endothelial cells to produce vasodilation
The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus resulting in vasodilation and increasing blood flow. Nitric oxide is highly reactive (having a lifetime of a few seconds), yet diffuses freely across membranes. These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient paracrine (between adjacent cells) and autocrine (within a single cell) signaling molecule.
maintain a phenotype
Muscle and heart are derived from __
continuation of a belief despite evidence to the contrary
chemical or radiation exposure is most likely to affect the baby when?
4-9 weeks during organogenesis
bilateral lesions of the amygdala=
NO2- reacts with water to form __
Polar molecules have __
high dipole moments
alpha and beta on sugars correspond to __
When glycerol reacts with 3 different fatty acids, only __
carbon 2 in the resulting triacylglycerol is attached to four different groups
A fatty acid has the general formula __
The corresponding fatty acid salt will have the general formula __
If two compounds provide the same ion, the molar concentration will be equal to the __
average of the two molar concentrations
Why is N2 so unreactive?
the triple bond
H2O is usually omitted from the equilibrium constant expression because __
it usually remains constant
Energy required to remove an electron from an atom is __
the ionization potential
The volume of a gas depends only on __
the number of moles of the gas pressent and not on the identity of the gas
The ionization constant=
the dissociation constant
The larger the dissociation constant, the ___
stronger the acid
The smaller the pKa, the __
stronger the acid
AgF is __
Trend of Zeff?
increases from left to right since the number of protons in the nucleus incresaes
Gas dissolving in a liquid is an __
exothermic process which means that it will be more soluble at lower temperature
1)A galvanic cell has a __reaction of __; reduction in a galvanic cell always occurs at the __and oxidation always at the __
1)Strecker synthesis: __
two-step process to form amino acids
1)What happens to a normal force the more vertical the plane becomes?
the smaller the frictional force becomes since it depends on the normal
1)When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction (n2>n1), it __
bends toward the normal
Power refers to the ability to __
influence people through real or perceived rewards and punishments
SES is an indicator of __
wealth or position
refers to a position in a society based on characteristics beyond the individual's direct control
Yerkes-Dodson law of social facilitation
states tha tsimpler tasks are performed better with higher amounts of arousal; not seen with complex tasks since it may cause distraction
emphasizes the importance of power and inequality within society
consideration of alternate explanations
amino acid precursor of serotonin
reticular activating system
For a fractionating column, how can you improve separation?
lengthen the tube
Explain inflation of the lungs.
it is accomplished by negative pressure.
Because the lung stays in contact with the thoracic wall as it enlarges due to contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, a pressure that is lower than atm is generated within the alveolar sacs
Relationship between resistivity and temperature
used in synthesis of plant and animal sterols, such as cholesterol, steroid, hormones, etc.
A good buffer?
has a pKa within 1 pH unit of hte desired experimental condition
Why won't sucrose be oxidized by Ag+ in the tollens test?
because it does not have a hemiacetal funcitonal group and will not undergo mutarotation
Archimedes principle: __
the ratio of the density of an object to the density fo the fluid it is submersed in is equal to the ratio of the weight of the object in air to the difference of submersed weight and weight in air
value of h in E=hf
h= 6.626 x 10^-34
Only __ are used to form proteins in eukaryotes during ribosomal protein synthesis.
Fewer pigments cause __
fewer signals of the weakly perceived color to be sent to the brain
If red pigment is absent, __
green cones are stronly stimulated, hence red appears more green than normal
Fatty acids contain
a carboxylic acid head group and a hydrocarbon tail
Depth of processing
refers to the type of attention applied to words during encoding
Interference refers to __
irrelevant information interfering with recall
Proactive interference involves the __
interference of information from long term memory with new information
Confirmation bias is __
the tendency to favor information that confirms existing beliefs. It can involve biases in the search for evidence or in the interpretation of evidence. It has also been found to be stronger for emotionally charged topics.
Conflict theory perspective emphasizes__
social relations of capital, power, and status as the driving forces in society
Norms and rituals correspond to __
symbolic interactionism than to the structural focus of conflict theory
Mead and his theory of Identity
-Me: part of the self that is formed in interaction with others and with the general social environment
-I: spontaneous and autonomous part of the self
giving rewards at variable periods
Linguistic abilities are __
lateralized on the left hemisphere
is the a small central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye; it is responsible for sharp central vision
Controlling for variables: __
when researchers account for various factors that could serve as confounds for the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
The periphery of the retina contains __
a higher density of light sensitive rods, which results in a clearer image in the dark