Ecology Exam

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Ecology Exam
2015-05-20 17:17:21
biology ecology

Ecology Bio 104
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  1. ecology
    is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance.
  2. organismal
    How does a species or organism function in this environment? And, how does the environment influence that species or organism?
  3. population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
  4. community
    a group of populations of different species in an area
  5. ecosystem
    the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact.
  6. landscape
    The science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy.
  7. dispersal
    movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin
  8. biotic
    • – Interactions with other species
    • – Predation
    • – Competition
  9. abiotic
    • – Temperature
    • – Water
    • – Sunlight
    • – Wind
    • – Rocks and soil
    • -Non biological things
  10. Macroclimate
    consists of patterns on the global,regional, and local level
  11. Microclimate
    consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log
  12. vertical layering
    an important feature of terrestrial biomes, and in a forest it might consist of an upper canopy, low-tree layer, shrub understory, ground layer of herbaceous plants, forest floor, and root layer
  13. Clumped dispersion
    individuals aggregate in patches and it might be influenced by availability and behavior
  14. uniform dispersion
    individuals are evenly distributed and it may be influenced by social interactions such as territoriality
  15. random dispersion
    the position of each individual isi ndependent of other individuals and it occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions
  16. semelparity
    Organism that reproduces only once in its lifetime.
  17. iteroparity
    Being capable of multiple reproductive events throughout life.
  18. carrying capacity
    (K) is the maximumpopulation size the environment can support
  19. interspecific interactions
    Ecologists call relationships between species in a community

    • • Competition
    • • Predation
    • • Herbivory
    • • Symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, andcommensalism)
  20. Interspecific competition
    (–/– interaction) occurs when species compete for a resource in short supply
  21. symbiosis
    • is a relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
    • • There are three types
    • • Parasitism
    • • Mutualism
    • • Commensalism
  22. endoparasites
    Parasites that live within the body of their host are called this
  23. ectoparasites
    Parasites that live on the external surface of a host
  24. species richness
    the total number of different species in the community
  25. Relative abundance
    the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community
  26. Trophic structure
    the feeding relationships between organisms in a community
  27. Food chains
    link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores
  28. dominant species
    those that are most abundant or have the highest biomass. Dominant species exert powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species
  29. Invasive species,
    typically introduced to a new environment by humans, often lack predators or disease
  30. Keystone species
    exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches. Incontrast to dominant species, they are not necessarily abundant in a community
  31. Foundation species
    (ecosystem “engineers”)cause physical changes in the environment that affect community structure.

    Examples: Beavers, humans
  32. disturbance
    an event that changes a community, removes organisms from it, and alters resource availability.

    Ex: Fire
  33. ecological niche
    Organism's functional role in the environment; also defined as the parts of the environment that a species uses or tolerates.