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is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance.
How does a species or organism function in this environment? And, how does the environment influence that species or organism?
a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
a group of populations of different species in an area
the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact.
The science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems. This is done within a variety of landscape scales, development spatial patterns, and organizational levels of research and policy.
movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin
- – Interactions with other species
- – Predation
- – Competition
- – Temperature
- – Water
- – Sunlight
- – Wind
- – Rocks and soil
- -Non biological things
consists of patterns on the global,regional, and local level
consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log
an important feature of terrestrial biomes, and in a forest it might consist of an upper canopy, low-tree layer, shrub understory, ground layer of herbaceous plants, forest floor, and root layer
individuals aggregate in patches and it might be influenced by availability and behavior
individuals are evenly distributed and it may be influenced by social interactions such as territoriality
the position of each individual isi ndependent of other individuals and it occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions
Organism that reproduces only once in its lifetime.
Being capable of multiple reproductive events throughout life.
(K) is the maximumpopulation size the environment can support
Ecologists call relationships between species in a community
- • Competition
- • Predation
- • Herbivory
- • Symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, andcommensalism)
(–/– interaction) occurs when species compete for a resource in short supply
- is a relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
- • There are three types
- • Parasitism
- • Mutualism
- • Commensalism
Parasites that live within the body of their host are called this
Parasites that live on the external surface of a host
the total number of different species in the community
the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community
the feeding relationships between organisms in a community
link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores
those that are most abundant or have the highest biomass. Dominant species exert powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species
typically introduced to a new environment by humans, often lack predators or disease
exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches. Incontrast to dominant species, they are not necessarily abundant in a community
(ecosystem “engineers”)cause physical changes in the environment that affect community structure.
Examples: Beavers, humans
an event that changes a community, removes organisms from it, and alters resource availability.
Organism's functional role in the environment; also defined as the parts of the environment that a species uses or tolerates.